Step 4: Dog walks
plastic bag/device for poop
water bowl and water
Teaching your dog to walk on a leash is almost always necessary. Many dogs will just pull on the leash, making the activity difficult for both parties involved. It will be a slow process at first, and some harnesses have been designed with the idea to help solve this issue by putting pressure on the forward leg joints. Though, truthfully, it failed miserably with our dog and she would protest its use. Choke collars work, especially the ones with points that collapse on the neck, but don't use it if you can't stand hurting your dog even just temporarily.
Otherwise, the use of the leash in the city limits is generally recommended if not required. Encountering other dogs, or automobiles make the leash pretty useful. An extendable leash is a good buy, but it will require smarter use by the dog owner. Water is good to bring along, especially on longer walks and on hotter days. Treats come in handy for just the regular positive encouragement of your dog.