Step 1: Factoring numbers
"Natural number factors" are the complete set of whole numbers, where if you multiply one number in the set by another in the set, you get the number that you're factoring.
For example, the number 5 has two factors: 1, and 5. The number 6 has four factors: 1, 2, 3, and 6.
"Integer factors" include negative numbers.
The number 5 in this case would have four factors: -5, -1, 1, and 5. 6 would have eight factors: -6, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, and 6.
(Natural numbers are numbers without fractions, starting from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... all the way up to infinity. Integers are natural numbers, as well as their negative counterparts and 0, or ...-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5...)
Factoring numbers with the natural number set is simple. Every number has at least two factors. To find other factors, start dividing the number starting from two and working your way up until you reach that number divided by 2. Any quotient that does not have a remainder means that both the divisor and the quotient are factors of that number.
Say you need to factor the number 9. You can't divide by two evenly, so we skip it. (Note the solution, 4.5, so you know when to stop later on.) 9 is divisible by 3, so add 3 to your list of factors. Work your way up until you divide by 5 (9 divided by 2, rounded up). You'll end up with 1, 3, and 9 as a list of factors.
When factoring numbers in the integer set, you can just add the negative equivalent of your solutions from natural number factoring in. So 9 would have factors of -9, -3, -1, 1, 3, and 9.
Factoring negative numbers can only be done with integer factoring. The solution is the same one you get factoring the positive version of the number. -9 has factors of -9, -3, -1, 1, 3, and 9.
Zero is the only integer that has an infinite amount of factors, and is the only one that has zero as a factor.