Step 13: Troubleshooting and Enjoyment

My radio doesn't quite work right!

It hums! If you replaced the filter caps, there's a chance you have a weak rectifier tube or a bad audio amp tube.

It's deaf! Make sure your antenna is ok and wired properly. Try turning the radio. The antenna is directional. If that doesn't solve it you may have a weak tube.

It doesn't play very loud before it sounds fuzzy. You may have a weak audio amp tube. Peek inside the cabinet while the radio is on (remember not to touch any metal so you dont get shocked!) If you have a tube that has a deep violet or deep blue glow inside the glass while it's powered up it may be a worn audio amp tube. Note the position of the tube on the chassis, UNPLUG the radio, get the tube out and look up it's number on the web. If the tube comes up as being an audio amp tube it probably needs replacing . A common audio amp tube on AA5 radios is the 50L6 and the 35L6. They are cheap and easy to get from tube vendors.

I get a raspy buzzing noise between stations. Electric eye lamps (lamps that turn off during the day automatically) have been known to create nasty noise on AM. Check on a known good AM radio to see if you get the same noise. If you do, your culprit is not the radio itself.

Radio sounds good at first then begins to sound distorted as time passes. You may have an out of spec resistor. While the radio is on, peek inside the cabinet being careful not to touch any metal so you don't get shocked. Look for a tube who's metal structure inside is glowing orange or red like its gonna melt. I'm not referring to the heater filaments as those are supposed to glow orange. If the tube structure itself is glowing from heat you may have a bias problem which is more than likely in the audio amp circuit of the radio. Obviously you can't perform this visual check on all metal tubes. Either way, it's time to get out the schematic and meter.

Following these same instructions I have resuscitated several old tube radios. The AA5 was built for simplicity thus there isn't much to go wrong and they are forgiving. Once your radio is up and running, enjoy it. Use it every so often. Just like an antique car, its bad to have it sit unused. Fire it up every now and then and show off your work!

into old tech? follow me on instagram as vintagetechguy to see random pics of interesting old tech.

I have to say. I have never read through a single instructable.. most of them are useless dribble or sharing information a 3 year old could figure out. BUT.... I not only learned something (a lot of somethings actually) but I actually read every single word and enjoyed the article! I actually enjoyed it so much I shared it with others! Perfect mix of information and humor... keep up the excellent work. (Did I flatter you enoug to fix my vintage radio for me? Lol)
<p>Very kewl instructable, kudos! FYI.. good old brown-paper-bag paper<br> works well also for speaker repair, it's stiffer and more closely <br>matches the tension in the cone.</p><p>Thanks for the lesson :)</p>
<p>Very useful instructable. I would only add &quot;take a lot of pictures - before, during and after.&quot; Especially easy in the age of digital photography and invaluable when you discover you forgot to make as detailed a set of notes as you thought you had.</p>
<p>I am looking for a replacement bulb for my Zenith J880 radio/record player. However the only markings on the base were &quot;USA&quot;. It has the bayonet style base, but it has 2 contacts instead of the one that the type 47 base bulbs I am finding online have. Any idea as to what type of bulb I should be searching for?</p><p>Thanks</p>
<p>I found that my boxes of tubes, mostly nos, all have the labels printed on the glass. look at the tube, watch how the light reflects off it even though the paint may be gone you may see a shine ghost of the printed label. Failing this try looking at http://www.nostalgiaair.org/ for the schematic that will have the tubes labeled, it is possible some of the tubes were re-arranged wrong, or replaced with something that doesn't belong(this is the only tube Grandpa had and it fits the socket, Bingo. WRONG) Remember when repairing something, the last person who had it couldn't fix it, don't trust their work.</p>
<p>i found all my tubes at the guitar center brand new</p>
<p>look in the socket and make sure it has two contact points in the center. a two filament bulb in a radio is kinda odd. they did make bulbs that had two filaments, one side of each filament was connected to the socket and the remaining leads connected to each contact under the bulb. those bulbs though not the right ones, will sometimes work in a single center pin socket if wiggled around enough. i'm not familiar with your model radio but i'd want to make sure that bulb belongs there.</p>
What do i need to read/watch so i can learn everything i need to know in order to fix this? Also could you tell me anything avout this radio like the year? I work for a moving conpany and a lady was throwing this away i thought it was really cool so i took it and niw i want to get it working. Any information will be greatly appreciated.
<p>i think what you have is called a farm radio. for places that had no commercial power, they sold radios that looked just like their city brothers but ran on batteries. electronically they are very similar to the AA5 but the circuits were designed to be run off a battery bank that consisted of heater, plate, and sometimes a bias battery. they would be called A, B, and C batteries. A was plate, B was heater and the biggest, C was small if even present as not all radios used them.</p>
<p>oops--A is for filaments or heaters, low voltage typ 1.5V to 6V, usually able to supply more current than the other sections; B is the plate supply much higher voltage than A, typ 22.5 to 135V; C is the negative grid bias usually 1.5 to 15V doesn't need to supply much (if any) current.</p><p>The newest radios I can think of that use A,B,(C?) batteries are the pre-solid state Zenith Trans Oceanic models. ISR the batteries were built into a single block integrating A,B, and C together.</p><p> As far as exchanging A and B batteries-- some tube-type hearing aids had the same shape and size separate A (1.5V) and B (15 or 22.5V) batteries. Needless to say, ignoring the warnings and exchanging these batteries causes the normally almost invisible filaments to light up brightly, but only for a few seconds, before burning out. </p><p>Batteries from these old days were made from series connected multiples of 1.5V cells-- look inside a 9V battery for a contemporary example. You will find either stack shaped cells, or one or two brands use tiny quad-A (AAAA) cells.</p>
Well i was going to sleep and instead found this gym. Just picked up a vintage RCA Victor 3-bx-671. The guy said it just had a bad tube, which i have the replacement on the way now. Got to redo all of the dial chords too. Can't wait to get the guy running though. Awesome instructable!
&quot;Just has a bad tube&quot; is generic for &quot;I have no clue and thats what everybody used to say.&quot;<br><br>Be careful. If it hasn't been recapped yet, you're bound to end up with a buzzing radio best case, smoking radio worst case.
This was great--thanks for sharing these tips with a new generation and demystifying troubleshooting tube electronics. Exactly what I needed to restore an old Philco 42-380 cabinet radio!
<p>A great instructable, really well-written. Takes me back to when I was 10 or so and our big wooden console B&amp;W TV would stop working. I'd pop off the back (while it was on! Amazing I didn't get zapped.) and see which tubes weren't glowing. I'd pop those out, take them to the 5 &amp; Dime, and put them in the tube analyzer machine they had to verify they were busted. Open the cabinet in the analyzer to pick out replacement tubes, take them home, plug them in, and get back to watching 'The Twilight Zone'. </p>
<p>The Vacuum Tube Number ECC 83 in my Grundig radio seems defective. I have one good tube called ECH 83. Can I replace ECC 83 by ECH 83? </p>
<p>nope. ecc83 is same as 12ax7 which is available at most music stores. its popular in guitar amps.</p>
<p>Watch out, not to handle the tubes, touching the printing on them, on many tubes it just wipes off.</p><p>GL de oz5es Ebbe</p>
<p>fortunately thats mostly a euro problem. the brand on american glass tubes was often in easy to remove ink but the tube number itself was not unless it was a rebranded euro tube sold by an american company. </p>
<p>Dear Sir: I would be grateful if you or any kind person could help me fix my old GRUNDIG RADIO MODEL 4670 U/STEREO AM 7 CIRCUITS, FM 10 CIRCUITS of Germany. The radio was in running condition for AM. But the FM transmission would stop after a minute or two. One mechanic tried to fix it, but the radio is now working at all. The magic eye is not on, no sound. I thought the magic eye tube was damaged. So I procured a magic eye tube and replaced the old one, but no remedy. I will be grateful if someone could help me. I am in Bangladesh. I would be traveling to USA on May 8. I wonder whether I can get any help in USA. But I cannot carry the radio all the way to USA. I can send photograph of the radio and the model numbers of different tubes. Please also send a copy of your message to my personal address: maswood@hotmail.com Sincerely, Maswood Alam Khan</p>
it sounds as if your technician may have done something to disconect or disable the power supply, in which case the whole radio will be dead as you describe. the magic eye tube is expensive and rarely goes bad unless physically damaged (break in glass).<br><br>i would suggest you open an account on antiqueradios.com and try to locate a schematic there. the schematic is the electrical diagram. you can definitely get a schematic via radiomusuem but joining cost money and the process is slow.<br><br>once you have a schematic, any good electronics tech that has some experience with older electronics should be able to save it. those radios used a selenium rectifier that is encased in a flat aluminum rectangle about the size of a thick playing card. that part and the power supply capacitors should be replaced. the rectifier fails and destroys the capacitors.
<p>Thank you, sir, for your response. The power supply is there as the dial lamp is on, and the tubes are also glowing as usual. But there is no sound. In Bangladesh it is impossible to find tubes or other parts of the old radio. I am thinking of taking notes and images of all the parts and tubes of the radio. Or, if you suggest, I can bring the chassis to USA to replace the parts as I am coming to Maryland, USA on May 08. I would be grateful if I could get your contact numbers and email address. Thanks again. Maswood A Khan (maswood@hotmail.com) </p>
<p>Thank you. The article was informative and very helpfiul. I was specifically looking for info on the electrodynamic speaker and got it.</p>
<p>Hi, I'm needing a little help. i have this 1962 Silver-tone console stereo. i'm having issues with am/fm it'll receive am with a lot of static and tune to one station. fm will not work at all. i have antenna hooked up. This is a tubed console the record player works great. can any one of you folks point me to the tube or area for t/s. thank you!.</p><p>Glennby</p>
<p>Thanks for the input, what type of equipment do i need?. </p><p>Thanks again.</p><p>Glennby</p>
you would need a copy of the Sam's Photofacts for your model, a stable RF signal generator that can go all the way up to the FM broadcast band, a set of RF tuning screwdrivers, and a decent VOM.
<p>Hi and thank you for the info. i've purchased a signal generator and will be here shortly. from a person who had it since new. has the instruction book with it as well. i'm still buying some tools, i would like to do this as a hobby, i love vintage HiFi's. i'll be retiring shortly and want something to do. i see that your a Ham, so am I. my call is WD4HVY. 73's again thanks for the info.</p>
this sounds like an RF issue which unfortunately may require special test gear.
<p>I recently restored my first AA5 radio, a GE model 101 made in 1948. Many thanks to KE4MCL for writing up this Instructable. It was quite a help. I replaced all the paper and electrolytic caps. I also had to replace the dial cord. I was surprised that I did not have to adjust the alignment any at all to pick up even the weakest stations in my area. Prior to this I have done very little with tube electronics, mostly chips and transistors.</p><p>This project turned out so well, I will try to bring a '50's Pilot AF-605 AM/FM mono only Hi-Fi tuner back to life next. That Pilot tuner looks clean under the chassis but I think I might have to replace quite a few more parts than on the GE. I am just starting research on the Pilot trying to find a schematic or service manual. Would anyone know where I can download either one? Thanks in Advance.</p>
btw... when working on any tuner its EXTREMELY important that you install all replacement parts in the same position as the old ones. all leads should be in the same exact place. this greatly lessens the need to realign the tuner when you're done.
i rebuilt one of those. didnt need the schem. not much different than working on AA5's.<br>
<p>thank you</p>
Wow, this is cool. I was born in 1960 so I remember tube TVs and Radios although transistor Radios seem to be more abundant when growing up (1970s). I do remember Drug, hardware and grocery stores having the station to check tubes and replacements for sale. You've now given me a bug to look for old tube radios to repair. Thank you for posting.
Memories... I'm of the last generation of techs who trained on tube equipment before we encountered transistors. At one time I had the standard AA5 schematics and all of the parts values and tube bases memorized. Repair shops used to have isolation transformers to make these radios less dangerous, but another solution was to measure the voltage between the chassis and an external ground. If the chassis was hot, reversing the power plug put the chassis on the neutral side of the line. Dial cord was just fishing line. Not monofilament, but nylon braid. Hardly anyone sells it as &quot;dial cord&quot; anymore, but fishermen still use it. Waxed dental floss will also work, but it's harder to tie. &quot;Loctal&quot; tubes have a glass envelope with a metal base that has a little bump on one side. Pushing on the bump, to move the tube sideways, releases the lock so you can pull the tube. This system was invented to keep tubes in aircraft electronics from vibrating loose, and it's pretty rare in AA5 sets.
Excellent explanation of a technical topic in a manner understandable by non-technical people. This is where we geeks almost always fall short.
i have a question i have a 59 zenith 7 tube radio when i turn it on it gets decent reception but it fades in and out after a while.....im using a pair of rabit ear antennas what could be my problem
I've got a tallboy radio with 9 tubes in it... would any of the instructions here be significantly different? Any chance of dangerous charge being stored in any of the capacitors?
It would be very similar. Still have all the same parts to replace. Your radio might have a power transformer in it thats all. <br><br>Leave it unplugged and switched on for a few hours and they will surely be discharged.
Hello again! Just finished this step and got some tubes to in line to buy, except one. I can't find the number on it (by the way it's glass), and it looks like the inside is completely blacked out. I do see a sort of stamp on the top, but it's too worn-away, and all I can make out is a 19 and a 6. Oh, and a prong is missing on the bottom (there were two missing on another one, but I was able to get the number on that one). Thanks for your help, this is a really fun project, and I can't wait to set this thing up for listening!
wipe the tube off so the glass is clean. go outside in the sun. give the area of the tube where you believe the numbers are, a nice slow exhale of hot balmy air from your mouth. this should cause condensation to form on the glass. while the condensation is there, try to catch some light reflecting off the area where you think the markings are. you may be able to read the markings off the tube as the condensation will appear slightly thinner on the areas that were marked thus giving you very faint but legible data. <br> <br>this is an old radiomans trick
Totally worked, and I got the number, 50L6! Thanks again
How would you suggest removing the front knobs? My wont budge =( By the way thanks for this instructable, I just got myself a Magic Tone 500.
some knobs had set screws that are visible on the edges. you will see a very small hole and if you look inside with some light you should be able to see either a hex or flat head screw. some military radios used 2 set screws per knob and they may be splined. you will need a bristol wrench set to remove those. most consumer radios though used a flathead. <br> <br>if your radio doesn't have set screws and the knobs wont budge your going to have to turn the radio so the knobs are facing down. take a can of wd40 and use the straw to get a shot of wd40 onto the knob shaft. let it sit a while. it should break free.
Thanks so much! I can totally see the set screws on them =D
Hello, I have an old philco that i just recapped. The radio will pick up all stations and sound good at low volume. When I turn it up - it gets lound but very distorted - any help would be great &quot;I am very skilled in electronics and tubes, so get as technical as you like&quot; THANKS
check your speaker for cracks. these old speakers can also unglue from the metal frame causing buzzing when played loud.<br><br>if the speaker is ok, my next target would be the output tube. its consumable and does wear out. the good thing is that most output tubes on table radios are not expensive. there's plenty of types of output tubes used but google is your friend here. google search each tube number. the one that comes back as &quot;audio amp tube&quot; or &quot;beam power tube&quot; or &quot;audio output tube&quot; or something along those lines may be your culprit. you can usually find radio audio tubes as New Old Stock on ebay for just a few bucks.
Super ible. I can't wait to see what's up with my 1936 American Bosch. Very well done, indeed!
The lack of transformer was not for savings purposes, but to allow the radio sets to work on DC power lines, like those used in those days in many countries, including the US, in addition to AC power lines. Surprisingly, although there are virtually no DC power lines at the 115 or 208 voltages, many long distance transmission lines now carry DC, not AC, because it is cheaper (and feasible) to do so.<br><br>If the voltage of the filaments did not add up to 120 or 220 V (used outside the US), the manufacturers added a resistor for extra voltage drop. In many cases, to save space and reduce internal heat, such resistor was wound inside the power cord, which made it warm to the touch when the radio was on.<br><br>The safest way to work with a &quot;Five&quot; is to use an isolation transformer (1:1) of the right volt amp rate (around 200 VA). This way, none of the power cord wires would be related to ground and it would be possible to touch the chassis without a 50/50 chance of getting electrocuted.<br>
i cant argue the dc aspect of your comment however the lack of power transformer is a different issue. it's widespread knowledge in many antique radio resources that the AA5 was born out of the desire to make radios more affordable when the depression hit in the 1930's. one of the most expensive single components in a radio was the power transformer. do away with it and you have a substantial cost savings. atwater kent chose to close his plant down instead of produce &quot;cheap&quot; sets when this issue became a big thing in the radio industry.
Great pic! Thanks! I never knew what a great invention the circuit board was. Some of my industrial controllers, still in use, from the 1980-90s have screen printed boards that look so quaint. Now I know... that quaint is great.
yeah,imagine a computer built like that...whew he ah ha! circuit board-less!

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