Introduction: How to Make Chlorine Gas
A lot of you probably know electrolysis with water. In this instructable I am going to show you how to take electrolysis to another level, with chlorine gas as a product.
Step 1: Safety Instructions + Theory
WARNING! Chlorine Gas is toxic and this experiment should be performed outside or under a fume hood. Please wear safety gear and stop the experiment once you smell the chlorine (should be after some seconds). Now a little theory (can be skipped if you like). Salt in Water dissolves into positive sodium ions and negative chlorine ions. With the electrolysis in this experiment we will obtain the chlorine gas as the chlorine ions are attracted to the positive electrode and leave one of their excess electrons, thus forming chlorine gas. On the negative side, hydrogen gas will form.
Step 2: The Materials
Now you need to gather some easy-to-find materials.
- A Cup
- Aluminium Foil
- A carbon or graphite electrode (can be obtained from batteries or just use a pencil lead)
- A 9 Volt Battery
- (Duct) Tape
- Breadboard (optional)
- something to stir
- safety gear
Step 3: Prepare the Solution
Dilute some salt in water. You can decide how much salt to use. I used 3-4 teaspoons of regular Sodium chloride salt on 100 ml of water.
Step 4: Prepare the Electrodes
Wrap a wire around the carbon electrode and fix it with tape. Repeat the process with the aluminium foil.
Step 5: Connecting - Producing Chlorine Gas
Put both electrodes in the cup filled with the saltwater. Now connect the positive side of the battery with the carbon electrode and the negative side with the aluminium foil. For ease of use you may use a breadboard. Once connected to the power outlet bubbles will start to form. The ones on the carbon electrode are chlorine gas bubbles. Soon you should be able to smell the chlorine. Stop the experiment then and do not leave it unattended, as chlorine is toxic. I am not responsible for any damage caused by the recreation of this instructable.