Step 1: Find your trees
Many other trees other than maples can be used. Pecan trees make a fabulous syrup, but I've heard of people using sweet gum, birch, box elder, among others. Each species will have it's own unique flavor.
Step 2: Add the Spiles
Some large scale producers use hoses and vacuum lines to pull the sap from the tree and to a storage tank, but if you're only tapping a few trees in your backyard, that isn't necessary.