Introduction: How to Make a Professional Short Film for $80 (Part I - Pre-Production).
I've been making films since the fifth grade. In this time, I have created countless shorts that continually get better. As a senior in high school, I felt I should make a final film to sum up all I had learned. For this to be an official end cap, the film had to be finished before I departed for my first year in college. As a soon to be college student, I had no money but dreamed big. This is how I made my 20 minute short film for $80 and how you can to.
This is part I of what will be a three part guide divided into pre-production, production, and post production. It will be followed up with detailed individual guides on the more important steps in each large step.
This guide will not be an exact process but rather a collection of resources filled with knowledge and tips that should help you to create a very high quality production for almost no money. It is general simply because of the enormous scope of material that I will be covering. Look for more detailed and specific information in upcoming instructables that target areas of the process.
There are a few quasi-legal tips scattered throughout the instructable. I am not responsible if you go to jail. Be smart and make wise decisions.
With that said, lets see what we will be working towards (I highly recommend you see it in HD):
The Teaser ( See it in HD at Vimeo ):
Step 1: Assumptions
We all know what happens when you assume but I am afraid I have to do it regardless of the saying...
I am going to assume you have the following items. I will mention alternatives and various versions of these as I address them but it will help greatly if you own them already.
A camcorder - Ability to capture to a computer is a must. We will discuss this in detail later.
A tripod - While the $10 one from Wal-Mart will do, a nice fluid head will help tremendously.
A computer - PC or Mac.
Compositing Application - Not necessary but definitely adds "awesome."
Friends or Family - If you lack either, please procure them before continuing.
Time - Making a professional, cheap short is a time consuming process. Make sure you have plenty of it to devote to your work.
Step 2: Planning and Pre-Production (The Script)
You can save yourself hours of time and frustration by planning ahead and making sure to completely think through what you are doing.
There is a detailed and confusing format motion picture scripts are written in. This code, as it seems to be at times, while painful at first will greatly simplify your work later. To facilitate writing in this process, several companies have created screenwriting programs to take advantage of confused young writers out there, the most notable one being Final Draft. You could pay the $230 for this program or you could use the highly superior FREE version based off the Mozilla Firefox core called Celtx.
I will not detail how to write a good script or the format necessary (info can be found in tutorials on the Celtx website). But I will provide you with a few good links:
Don't want to write your own script? Check out the unproduced scripts at SimplyScripts:
Step 3: Planning and Pre-Production (Storyboarding)
I have to make a horrible confession. I don't storyboard. I do, however, firmly believe that it will save you countless headaches and time but it is not strictly necessary - at least in a short film.
What is a storyboard you ask? Basically it is the comic book version of the movie. Every shot you plan will be a separate frame depicting things like camera movement and location, actors movement and location, environment movement and location, and every single bit of movement and location you want in your shot and ultimately movie. It will help you plan out what you need to do on set. What shots you will need. What props are necessary. You get the idea.
The most common way to storyboard is by hand. I like to draw on standard 3x5 index cards.
Let me stop for a moment and say that it is now important to know if you will be shooting with a standard aspect ration of 4:3 (your grandma's black and white television) or 16:9 (your new 52" plasma HDTV) or an even greater aspect ratio (Lord of the Rings). This knowledge ensures you don't plan shots that won't fit on your camera.
What's that you say? You cannot draw? No fear, me either. There are several options available for the artistically challenged such as us. Remember, you are just planning movement and location so a stick figure with an arrow is more than adequate for planning out your shots. But if you are one of those people (you know I am talking about you) then you can use software such as StoryBoard Artist or FrameForge to do it for you - or you could save hundreds of dollars and use the FREE Google Sketchup.
Sketchup? Yes. Add your characters and props - which you downloaded from Google's Bonus Packs (even includes a Film and Stage kit) or from the Sketchup 3D Warehouse. This is a solution many small studios use as they can precisely control the placement of everything and their camera.
Okay, I finished my storyboard - now what do I do with them? Why load them up into Celtx to centrally consolidate all of your files!
Step 4: Planning and Pre-Production (Equipment & Props)
Let me begin by saying that I am going to create a separate instructable entirely devoted to this topic. Do you have anything you want clarified? Do you have a prop or costume you want to know how to procure for cheap? Post a comment here and I'll check back and write it up if I can help!
So you have your film all planned out and you are preparing to film. But what are you going to film on? I could write pages and pages on the topic (and will soon) but this instructable is supposed to be general. Let me say this, if you are buying a camcorder under $1000 then get either a canon HV20 or HV30 (should be around $650 and $750 respectively). A Canon HV30 was used to make my film. I will explain why in this mythical upcoming instructable. If you are spending more than $1000 then you probably know what you are doing and don't need my help.
If at all possible, procure a tripod with a fluid head. You should be able to find a very good amateur video tripod for no more than $125. Check B&H or Amazon.
I highly recommend using an external microphone for recording. When used in conjunction with a boom pole (mind the shameless plug) you can get drastically better audio. For a consumer camcorder, try the Rode VideoMic. You can get it for no more than $150.
Okay. I know that adds up to more than $80 but the only thing that is absolutely, positively necessary was the camera and I already assumed you have that. Don't consider these purchases so much as investments. You only have to buy it once and you're set for life, or at least until some new cool toy comes out.
I try not to spend any money on props. However, this is where the $80 from my film went. You can probably beg and borrow almost everything you need for a film from friends and family. The SWAT guy, if you watched my movie, is where all my prop money went. It was composed of a police uniform from Party City, skateboard pads, and a helmet and vest purchased from an Airsoft Store. Total cost:$80.
If you need a specific prop and are having trouble finding out how to find or make it. Please comment below and I will try to help you in my upcoming instructable.
Step 5: Planning and Pre-Production (Location)
Permit laws vary from state to state and place to place. I live in Georgia which is relatively permit free meaning I can film most places without having to worry about being hassled by the police. Regardless, I have no money for permits and therefore practice a method of filmmaking affectionately referred to as guerrilla.
Guerrilla filmmaking borders on the territory of what is legal quite often so let me say again, I am not responsible for whatever dumb decisions you make. With that said, guerrilla filmmaking is a blast.
Much of my movie was filmed in Atlanta, particularly in an abandoned paint factory that we discovered via Flickr and friends. Flickr, youtube, and your everyday search engine are your best friends when it comes to discovering awesome, unique locations in your city to create films. Just be advised that most of these locations probably require permits. However, if you stay discreet and hidden this probably won't be a problem. As long as you travel light you can claim ignorance of local permit laws on the grounds of being a film student or amateur.
Your last, and probably greatest, location resource are your friends and family. The hospital scene in my film was actually filmed in a hospital without the knowledge of the staff. The other director's grandmother was recovering from a recent surgery and while she was out exercising, we borrowed her room to film a quick scene. To remain anonymous we were forced to whisper all the lines and then redub in post. It was not the easiest or most elegant solution but it was a lot fun.
Be smart, travel light, and think creatively and you should have no problem finding the perfect location for your awesome movie.
Step 6: Planning and Pre-Production (Cast)
I have never paid an actor in my life, but I would if I could or at least that's what I tell them. The trick is to use friends and family who aspire to be actors. For the most part, they will deliver satisfactory performances. The only catch is that, because you aren't paying the, they may not work with your schedule. If you are filming with lots of different individuals, trying to find a day where everyone can come can be impossible.
I have friends who swear by Craigslist. You can post a free classified ad saying that you are filming a short film for fun and looking for aspiring actors willing to work for free. I have seen some fantastically talented and experienced actors show up at no budget projects via this method. Definitely something to consider.
This concludes the Pre-Production portion of How to make a Professional Short Film for $80. Look for the second portion, Production, soon.