## Step 1: Materials

4 or 5 Disposable flash cameras (I went to a camera store and asked them for some and they took a big box with about a hundred in it, they sold them to me at ten cents a camera, I only got ten)

aluminum foil

plexiglass

wire

small switch

big switch

aluminum or steel rails

6 nuts and bolts

wire hanger

tools;

screwdriver

soldering iron

duct tape

wire strippers

wire cutters

## Step 2: Prepare the cameras

take out the circuit board

take out the capacitors from all but one of them (you might want to take out the flashbulbs too they look cool when you put several thousand volts through them)

remove the swich thing and solder two wires in its place

## Step 3: The circuit

solder the extra capacitors onto the current on (remember to keep the positive and negative sides together)

solder two long wires to the capacitors

solder the big switch onto the positive wire

## Step 4: The rails

cut two pices of plexiglass about 1.5in by 4.5in

make a small gap between the rails that is perfectly straight (I used a wire hanger as a divider)

sandwitch it beween the two pieces of plexiglass and clamp it

drill six holes for the bolts

put the bolts in and screw the nuts on tight

## Step 5: Set it up

ball up a small piece of aluminum foil and jam it into the middle of the rails

put a battery into the battery thing

## Step 6: Fire!

when the led blinks you can press the big button and fire it

after you're done use a srewdriver to trigger the capacitors a few times before touching it

**Signing Up**

For energy, use mother nature..... lighting bolt....

over

five billion Joules in a lighting bolt...

To release sparks, a railgun doesn't have to be THAT powerful, but it still requires a fairly large amount of energy. In short, THIS railgun can't be used to kill people or do any heavy damage.

I just found all of this information,

Watt x Time = Joules This is 8948 time 3600 secconds = 32,212,800 joules which is a pretty good conversion for the one minute I put in.

Power x Time = Work (energy)

Joules/distance = Newtons

Work/distance = Force

So you can convert power to energy, its just a little more complicated than most conversions.

But charging and equations are not linear which you are assuming. By your logic you can convert Joules into cubic meters

Joules are a measure of energy (energy is defined as the ability to do work)

Work is power * time and is measured as an SI unit of joules

Power is the rate at which work is performed or energy is converted

Time is, well you know what time is

By looking closely at these properties you can conclude that power over time is work or hp over one hour is joules

When I use the word over I don't refer to a fraction or division problem I refer to something occurring over a period of time.

Ha ha, I was just doing some math and you are just a failure. 33 gigajoules is 3,000,000,000 joules. That number is one 0 short of your number (typo probably). Also sure you may get 4.5 million hp (DON'T QUOTE ME I AM USING YOUR DATA AND IT IS TOO LATE AT NIGHT FOR ME TO CHECK IT), but you only get 4.5 million hp for 0.01 seconds. If you calculate that out which I can't think of how to do at this time you will only have a few horsepower over the course of a short time.

-to everyone other than 06sandj Please disregard this post as the information is useless and just a poorly compile explanation of the massive fail seen above.

Um, no. Catapults produce recoil. So do crossbows. Recoil is a function of Newton's "Law" of conservation of linear momentum. If you impart a momentum (Velocity * Mass) to an object, an equal and opposite momentum is imparted to you. You're making a mistake similar to a newspaper writer who assumed that rockets couldn't work in space because there was "no air to push against." If an astronaut in free fall were to throw something, he or she would move in the opposite direction at a velocity proportional to the relative masses. If you'd like a more mundane example, skate out onto an ice rink and throw a shot-put. If you don't brake yourself with your skates, you'll recoil.

yes, i understand that newtons law contributes to the recoil of a weapon and in a comment below i did some rough calculations based on the returned energy of a railgun, but in modern firearms the vast majority of the recoil is generated from chemical expansion causing that equall and opposite reaction, not the projectile which weighs a few grams.

seeing where they got the energy and how big the power source is would also be funny.

The energy is being stored then released, hence the capacitors. There is always some energy loss but not that much.

Think of your car engine, the energy loss is caused from heat, vibration, friction, noise, just to name a few things, all can be measured and combined they total the energy used to run it.

Hydrogen has an exothermic reaction of about 286000 joules per mol, that means the energy released when hydrogen combines with Oxygen is 286,000 Watts, gas is probably pretty close to that too, but you don't see that power at your wheels.

In this situation we have less energy loss, no vibration or noise until you release the energy stored.

Robert Goddard: "For every action there is an opposit and equal reaction"

-Face Palm-

You are not converting. You are doing calculations. A conversion changes things that are equivalent. You can only change Joules into other energy units.

Further, you are ignoring inefficency, heat transfer, momentum and impulse, how magnetic fields work, charging and discharging of capacitors and other things.

Also, the electricity that is used is in watt hours when calculated.

That is what is what is wrong with what you are doing.

And one Watt Hour is 3600 Watt Seconds, and one Watt Second is a Joule. All the other characteristics: efficiency, impulse, etc. are mere complications and have Zero relevance to energy to power equivalence, since all such "losses" are also expressed as energy. If a quantity of fuel produces 1 MJ when completely oxidized, it produces 1 MJ. If your generator is 50% efficient, it produces 500 kJ of electricity and 500 kJ of waste energy in heat, vibration (noise), and electrostatic and electromagnetic losses (which eventually also become heat), but the TOTAL energy is still 1 MJ.

All you need is an Axiom and you can convert anything you like.

For example:

Under this situation the Axiom is a Joule, and we know that 1 joule = 1 watt. We also know that Wattage is PxA.

So I can have a power supply rated at 2V .5A that = 1Watt or a supply with a power rating of .5V and 2A = 1Watt.

I think our education system is in trouble when a person with a Physics and Mechanical engineering degree thinks that Power and Energy are different.

Maybe "jj.inc" is wrong about other things but he isn't wrong about that.

Einsteins theory or relativity: Energy cannot be created nor destroyed only transformed.

Don't tell me you beleive in overunity?

ONE HOURJoules/Newtons = Distance

Work/distance = Force

All you need is an Axiom, math does not lie, equations are linear; What isn't linear would be how the rules are applied.

Newtons third law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Einsteins theory of relativity: energy cannot be destroyed or created only transfomed

That's Einstein's Theory Of Mass-Energy Equivalence, upon which relativity is based, but it's a separate theory from Special and General Relativity. The common form of E = MC² is actually incomplete. It's more properly E² = M² * C^4, or E = √(M²C^4) = ±MC² which implies the possible existence of negative energy, and possibly, imaginary mass.

The Special and General Relativity Theories deal with other properties.

(voltage^2*capacitance)/time=joules when you are referring to a railgun. Joules of energy is what is important rather than the work for a railgun. And the proper conversion for figuring the force delivered by the projectile is actually mass times acceleration. Astoundingly this works out in the physical world because, like in a rifle, once the projectile leaves the force acting upon it, in this case the magnetic field is the accelerating force, the projectile is immediately in deceleration unless it is shot along a parabolic path, in which case it could possible experience some acceleration once it passes its apex due to acceleration induced by gravity IF it has decelerated below it's terminal velocity.

And horsepower is how long it takes a team of horses (later revised to a force) to drag a 200lb object over a given distance, so it literally has no application in a railgun. Google is NOT reliable for conversions.

this one throws plasma with a kilojoule.

https://sites.google.com/site/futureexperimentalsystems/emla-iii-p

33 GigaJoules is 33,000,000,000 Joules. A joule is also known as a Watt Second, or one watt for a second. It's also one kilowatt for a millisecond, a megawatt for a microsecond, etc. One horsepower is equal to 746 Watts (by definition). The calculation of 12 HP for one hour therefore results in 12 HP Hours, or 12 * 746 * 3600 = 32,227,200 Watt Seconds, or 32,227,200 Joules. The original calculation is off by 3 orders of magnitude; it would require 12,000 HP for one hour, or 12 HP for 1,000 Hours (about 42 days). This is still far less than the power consumed by a city in a year. A 100-Watt bulb consumes 100 * 3600 * 24 * 365.25 = 3,155,760,000 Watt-Seconds or Joules. Thus, 33 GigaJoules equals 1.0457 kW for one year. Very few cities consume that little power.

The problem is charging an energy storage bank in a reasonable time. Assume you want to be able to fire your 33 GJ bank repeatedly. Simply divide your Energy requirement by your allowed charging time. If you wanted to be able to fire one a second, your generator would need to be able to produce 33,000,000,000/1 = 33 GW. If you could settle for one round per minute, it will require 33,000,000,000/60 = 550 MW. One round per hour would require 9,166,667 MW. This assumes continuous charging.

If you want to compute the energy stored in a capacitor, the formula is:

E = V² * C /2

As an example, a 1,000 μF capacitor charged to 450 V would store:

450² * 0.001 / = 202,500 * 0.001 / 2 = 101.25 J

It would require 101.25 Watts over one second to charge this capacitor, or 10.125 Watts for ten seconds, etc.

You can just go to walgreens and ask for used disposable cameras and you can pretty much get as many as you want for free!