## Step 1: Materials

4 or 5 Disposable flash cameras (I went to a camera store and asked them for some and they took a big box with about a hundred in it, they sold them to me at ten cents a camera, I only got ten)

aluminum foil

plexiglass

wire

small switch

big switch

aluminum or steel rails

6 nuts and bolts

wire hanger

tools;

screwdriver

soldering iron

duct tape

wire strippers

wire cutters

## Step 2: Prepare the cameras

take out the circuit board

take out the capacitors from all but one of them (you might want to take out the flashbulbs too they look cool when you put several thousand volts through them)

remove the swich thing and solder two wires in its place

## Step 3: The circuit

solder the extra capacitors onto the current on (remember to keep the positive and negative sides together)

solder two long wires to the capacitors

solder the big switch onto the positive wire

## Step 4: The rails

cut two pices of plexiglass about 1.5in by 4.5in

make a small gap between the rails that is perfectly straight (I used a wire hanger as a divider)

sandwitch it beween the two pieces of plexiglass and clamp it

drill six holes for the bolts

put the bolts in and screw the nuts on tight

To release sparks, a railgun doesn't have to be THAT powerful, but it still requires a fairly large amount of energy. In short, THIS railgun can't be used to kill people or do any heavy damage.

this one throws plasma with a kilojoule.

https://sites.google.com/site/futureexperimentalsystems/emla-iii-p

I just found all of this information,

Watt x Time = Joules This is 8948 time 3600 secconds = 32,212,800 joules which is a pretty good conversion for the one minute I put in.

Power x Time = Work (energy)

Joules/distance = Newtons

Work/distance = Force

So you can convert power to energy, its just a little more complicated than most conversions.

But charging and equations are not linear which you are assuming. By your logic you can convert Joules into cubic meters

Joules are a measure of energy (energy is defined as the ability to do work)

Work is power * time and is measured as an SI unit of joules

Power is the rate at which work is performed or energy is converted

Time is, well you know what time is

By looking closely at these properties you can conclude that power over time is work or hp over one hour is joules

When I use the word over I don't refer to a fraction or division problem I refer to something occurring over a period of time.

Ha ha, I was just doing some math and you are just a failure. 33 gigajoules is 3,000,000,000 joules. That number is one 0 short of your number (typo probably). Also sure you may get 4.5 million hp (DON'T QUOTE ME I AM USING YOUR DATA AND IT IS TOO LATE AT NIGHT FOR ME TO CHECK IT), but you only get 4.5 million hp for 0.01 seconds. If you calculate that out which I can't think of how to do at this time you will only have a few horsepower over the course of a short time.

-to everyone other than 06sandj Please disregard this post as the information is useless and just a poorly compile explanation of the massive fail seen above.

seeing where they got the energy and how big the power source is would also be funny.

The energy is being stored then released, hence the capacitors. There is always some energy loss but not that much.

Think of your car engine, the energy loss is caused from heat, vibration, friction, noise, just to name a few things, all can be measured and combined they total the energy used to run it.

Hydrogen has an exothermic reaction of about 286000 joules per mol, that means the energy released when hydrogen combines with Oxygen is 286,000 Watts, gas is probably pretty close to that too, but you don't see that power at your wheels.

In this situation we have less energy loss, no vibration or noise until you release the energy stored.

Robert Goddard: "For every action there is an opposit and equal reaction"

-Face Palm-

Joules/Newtons = Distance

Work/distance = Force

All you need is an Axiom, math does not lie, equations are linear; What isn't linear would be how the rules are applied.

Newtons third law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

Einsteins theory of relativity: energy cannot be destroyed or created only transfomed

You are not converting. You are doing calculations. A conversion changes things that are equivalent. You can only change Joules into other energy units.

Further, you are ignoring inefficency, heat transfer, momentum and impulse, how magnetic fields work, charging and discharging of capacitors and other things.

Also, the electricity that is used is in watt hours when calculated.

That is what is what is wrong with what you are doing.

All you need is an Axiom and you can convert anything you like.

For example:

Under this situation the Axiom is a Joule, and we know that 1 joule = 1 watt. We also know that Wattage is PxA.

So I can have a power supply rated at 2V .5A that = 1Watt or a supply with a power rating of .5V and 2A = 1Watt.

I think our education system is in trouble when a person with a Physics and Mechanical engineering degree thinks that Power and Energy are different.

Maybe "jj.inc" is wrong about other things but he isn't wrong about that.

Einsteins theory or relativity: Energy cannot be created nor destroyed only transformed.

Don't tell me you beleive in overunity?

ONE HOUR(voltage^2*capacitance)/time=joules when you are referring to a railgun. Joules of energy is what is important rather than the work for a railgun. And the proper conversion for figuring the force delivered by the projectile is actually mass times acceleration. Astoundingly this works out in the physical world because, like in a rifle, once the projectile leaves the force acting upon it, in this case the magnetic field is the accelerating force, the projectile is immediately in deceleration unless it is shot along a parabolic path, in which case it could possible experience some acceleration once it passes its apex due to acceleration induced by gravity IF it has decelerated below it's terminal velocity.

And horsepower is how long it takes a team of horses (later revised to a force) to drag a 200lb object over a given distance, so it literally has no application in a railgun. Google is NOT reliable for conversions.