Introduction: How to Make a Voltage Multiplier

Picture of How to Make a Voltage Multiplier

Hello everyone,
  This instructable will tell you how to make a voltage multiplier! So, lets get started :)

Here is some info about voltage multipliers if you want to know how they work. If not, then skip to the parts list.

Definition - "A voltage multiplier is an electrical circuit that converts AC electrical power from a lower voltage to a higher DC voltage by means of capacitors and diodes combined into a network." - Wikipedia

My definition - Voltage multipliers rectify low voltage AC to high voltage DC (pulsed). It uses a series of capacitors and diodes to simultaneously step up and rectify the AC to DC. Most of its uses are obviously applications that require high voltages...

     The type of multiplier we will be making is called a 'half-wave' multiplier. I think its the simplest, yet efficient for my purposes. full-wave multipliers are more efficient in the sense that, there is less ripple voltage. Basically, ripple = bad, bad = Less current and voltage out. A voltage multiplier consists of 'stages' each stage doubles the peak output of the ACinput. the more stages, the higher the voltage. In this 'ible, I only make a 2 and 3 stage multiplier because my breadboard isn't big enough to support that and its not even rated for that voltage anyway :P




PARTS LIST!
The following is the parts required for building the EXACT replica of my voltage multiplier. you can easily modify to your needs though. Like add more stages and stuff...

six 330VDC 80uF capacitors (you can get them from the single use cameras at wal-mart.)
seven 1A 400v (minimum) diodes (1N4004)
A breadboard, (or something to mount the components)
22 AWG jumper wire or just regular solid 22 AWG wire.
A wall wart- 16VAC or equivalent. (750ma)
misc alligator clips (for temporary testing)

Tools:
Multimeter (for testing purposes)
wire snips (to take off the insulation on the wire)

Step 1: NOTE!

Picture of NOTE!

I am not responsible If you get hurt/die from accidentally touching or coming into contact with the HV output!

Proceed to the next step to start building!

Step 2: Schematic

Picture of Schematic

Making this will be kind of hard since some breadboards are different so I drew a schematic of what we are making. 3 Stage Half-Wave Voltage Multiplier!

Step 3: Build the Capacitor and Diode Array

Picture of Build the Capacitor and Diode Array


try to follow the pictures the best you can, I took so many pictures so that I could explain in the photo instead of words because it will become WAY to confusing if I was saying the letters and number pins the you put the components in.

Make sure that each side of capacitors is linked in series like so: Pos + to Neg - Pos + to neg -
The very first diode goes from ground to the Pos + of C1, then from the Pos + of C1to the Pos + of C2, Pos + of C2 to the Pos + of C3 and so on...

Step 4: Prepare Wallwart

Picture of Prepare Wallwart

Now we are going to prepare the wall wart. Make sure you know which wire is HOT and the other is NEUTRAL first!!! Strip about a half inch of insulation on each wire then attach the alligator clips.

Step 5: Hook Everything Up!

Picture of Hook Everything Up!

The easiest thing to do is look at the pictures... I detailed them the best I could.

connect the alligator clip ends to the AC input (the Wall wart ones!) and connect 2 alligator clips to the HV out and ground to the multimeter. Turn on the power and your done!! the multimeter should display roughly the AC input 3 * to DC output.

Step 6: END!

Picture of END!


Thank you for reading My instructable!! If you have any comments or suggestions the feel free to post! If you need help you can post it here or PM me. Thanks again!

Comments

kkeyan (author)2014-07-10

this is an AC to DC multiplier.I want tomake an DC to DC multiplier. Can you help???

thomas30 (author)kkeyan2017-09-07

look up how to make a boost converter

PATEL Rinkesh (author)2017-04-03

if we using 24VAC suppy for crockroft walton voltage multiplier for 8 stage

then which kind of ratings of capacitor we nedded for the circuit ???????

plzzz ans sir///////////////////////////////

pnascimento1 (author)2013-12-28

DOESNT WORK WHYYYYYYYYYYYYYY i have tried everything WHYYYYYYY im going to sleep fck this

Mudbud (author)pnascimento12014-01-23

Well as one of my first instructables I don't think it was very good to not include an actual schematic of the device. I attached the pic in my reply, it is not the EXACT same as my project (I added another stage) but if you follow the schematic then it will work fine. Another thing to note is that if you plan on using the DC output for anything important you are going to need a nice fat uF capacitor to buffer the output so there won't be any oscilation

darediamond (author)Mudbud2015-10-06

Mubud, I seriously need to show you my setup as I am having problem making a Voltage Multiplier to Power my High Voltage Electromagnet that needs nothing less than 4000VDC to function properly. the first Capacitor on the Rigth line is always getting Hot and exploding!

Please how can I reach you via email so that I can send all the pictures of What I have done so far including the pictures of my wiring Burst Caps etc.

I please just need your help privately. darediamond"at"gmail.com is my contact email address. May I know yours please

rebeccaz4 (author)darediamond2017-03-27

The capacitors in the tutorial are rated for 330vdc; if the voltage is stepped to high, the capacitors will heat & explode. To workaround this get higher rated capacitors.

UttkarshS1 (author)2017-03-14

can i put 220vac in

and get approx 440vdc?????

rebeccaz4 (author)UttkarshS12017-03-27

The capacitors can only handle 330VDC. Theoretically with higher-rated capacitors you might be able to step up to over 440V., but with these capacitors they'll probably explode, as the Unibrow showed us.

UttkarshS1 (author)2017-03-14

can u specify which capacitors and diodes are used???

kkeyan (author)2014-07-10

this is an AC to DC multiplier.I want tomake an DC to DC multiplier. Can you help???

Use a buck convertor instead

InthelambdacoreD (author)kkeyan2015-10-08

just put a transformer driver of some kind to suppy the PWM (ZVS drivers work really well)

~CableGuy (author)2012-11-20

is it possible to use a 555 timer instead of AC input?

Actually u can use... Because in my recent project of recreating a mosquito zapper i used voltage tripler to step up pulsed voltage and it worked fine

Mudbud (author)~CableGuy2012-11-21

I'm pretty sure that wont work because this relies on the pulsing pos/neg current of AC and not pulsed DC

greyfoxrgr (author)Mudbud2015-12-07

see above comment also there are buck converter that apply pretty much the same principles with a cap and a coil to get the same effect using DC.

greyfoxrgr (author)~CableGuy2015-12-07
The Voltage Doubler

As its name suggests, a Voltage Doubler is a voltage multiplier circuit which has a voltage multiplication factor of two. The circuit consists of only two diodes, two capacitors and an oscillating AC input voltage (a PWM waveform could also be used). This simple diode-capacitor pump circuit gives a DC output voltage equal to the peak-to-peak value of the sinusoidal input. In other words, double the peak voltage value because the diodes and the capacitors work together to effectively double the voltage.

DC Voltage Doubler Circuit

JasonC1983 (author)2016-11-29

I'm curious did you consider what the voltage rating of breadboard is before doing this project? I don't know what the ratings of breadboard are, and from a quick internet search it doesn't appear to be readily available information. Having said that though, you wouldn't catch me prototyping high voltage circuits on breadboard. This would be much safer on vero-board with minimal exposed components legs hanging around in the air for a lazy finger to touch and less chance of a wire coming out to be accidentally touched.

GreigS (author)2016-02-07

Hi, does anyone know how to get fractional multiplication, say 3.5 times the input?

GreigS (author)GreigS2016-05-24

Nevermind. You just add a voltage divider with caps on the input side to bring the input voltage to the desired level, then it can be multiplied.

Mudbud (author)GreigS2016-05-24

Yes

M.

Di Immortales (author)2015-08-06

could you make one wit han instructabe like this but DC to DC

greyfoxrgr (author)Di Immortales2015-12-07
The Voltage Doubler

As its name suggests, a Voltage Doubler is a voltage multiplier circuit which has a voltage multiplication factor of two. The circuit consists of only two diodes, two capacitors and an oscillating AC input voltage (a PWM waveform could also be used). This simple diode-capacitor pump circuit gives a DC output voltage equal to the peak-to-peak value of the sinusoidal input. In other words, double the peak voltage value because the diodes and the capacitors work together to effectively double the voltage.

DC Voltage Doubler Circuit

Hitman312 (author)2015-02-11

what battery i gona to Power it with? or can i Power it with they batteries i have to multiplie that voltage ( how many times does the multiplie doing to volt on my batteries ) i thinking i gona to build this for a Project to Power up my stuff :D pls someone how to Power it? and get the high voltage output! :D all help is accepted.

randoman221 (author)2014-04-24

the uf symbol for u is WRONG! u do it like this: alt+m=µ. then add capital F. :) hope that helps.

randoman221 (author)2014-04-24

is there a parts list?how much µF are the capacitors
?

erncar (author)2012-05-11

Thanks for the instructable. I just made this with 450v 4.7uf caps and 3amp 1000v diodes. I used120vac instead of 16 and it puts out 750vdc+, my multi meter doesn't like it.

baecker03 (author)erncar2014-03-03

probably is only rated up to 600v

Electo4fun (author)2012-10-13

Could you use a DC input that is connected to a very small spark gap instead of using an AC wall wart?

-max- (author)Electo4fun2013-11-11

You might be able to assemble a circuit (Like a royer oscillator) and get a nice high frequency AC output, but it is easier to hack into a DC wall-wart and take the diodes/shoothering cap-circuitry out, and taking the wires running out of the wall wart and soldering them directly to the Xformer.

Mudbud (author)Electo4fun2012-11-05

No you cannot use DC. It needs AC power to successfully multiply through each stage because of the oscillation.

leviterande (author)2013-07-30

Would this work for a halfwave DC flyback?

SirCheez (author)2013-07-28

If you can get a little outlet for the wart to plug into, there's no need to strip the wires :)

famanuel (author)2013-01-30

what a nice and great explanation!!! i love it, and it is clear
thanks

~CableGuy (author)2012-11-24

how about a push-pull circuit?

Dreistein (author)2012-05-01

hey i'd like to make a device i can attach to say my foot ,that if i touch someone they would get a shock basically like when you walk with socks over a carpet but the effect is automated. A guy made an ible https://www.instructables.com/id/The-mini-electrostatic-generator/ where he makes what im describing but its not very detailed. any ideas?

Mudbud (author)Dreistein2012-08-09

Uhm no I don't really know how you would achieve that without being shocked yourself 24/7...

Ihackedyouraccount (author)2012-06-25

Do the capacitors need to be the same kind or can I use a mix of capacitors?

If the capacitors are all DC and rated for voltage above what you want then yes

tesla man (author)2012-07-12

Does a voltage multiplier increase amperage?

Mudbud (author)tesla man2012-08-09

No it actually decreases the overall amperage. Each stage cuts it in half or a quarter I believe.

hore (author)2012-04-24

hei, can i use your your project to supply power for my hot air soldering station.

Mudbud (author)hore2012-04-26

I'm pretty sure the source power you need is AC from a wall outlet. This creates DC power so it wouldn't work.

hore (author)Mudbud2012-04-26

Any recommendation to change it to AC power, i dont really understand how electronic component work sometimes, plus if i want to build this can i use power sources from battery.

Sarah23 (author)2012-04-02

Hi,i am very new in electronics,and i am now working on device that requires high DC voltage range between 270 V - 440 V.We would like to make same thing as you did,however,it is quiet difficult to find certain specs as you stated.What we have now are 3 types of capacitors,which are,(200V,100microF),(200V,330microF) and (400V,100microF).Which one is suitable?Thank you.

Mudbud (author)Sarah232012-04-26

Sorry for the late reply.
I would use the 400V 100mf because it would be safer and you could change the input to higher/lower voltage later.

knexpert1700 (author)2012-03-27

what im gonna do is to go to radioshack and buy some capacitors,diodes,and a 7.2 volt lithium-ion battery to make a circuit to run a 24 or 12 volt motor with at least close to no amps.hope it turns out good,and if it does,i am going to make an instructable and youtube video on it!my youtube user is: knexpert1700

tom10122 (author)2011-12-14

Can i use dc vin instead of ac?

Mudbud (author)tom101222012-02-10

no it doesn't work like that. It has to be AC input to multiply the voltage

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