After reading the melange of instructables on this website, there are many misconceptions about making moonshine and distillation etc
For this reason, i have decided to compile and publish the knowledge and data I have amassed.

This is going to be a long and detailed instructable that is a product of my many months of feverish research. This information was suppose to be the basis of my science fair project that never left the paper.
Final Note:
Remember, within the United States, it is ILLEGAL to distill any kind of alcohol without a license. Licenses to make alcohol for consumption are neigh to impossible to get. However, ones to distill fuel are more readily obtainable.
Additionally, the information on this Instructable is to be used as a GUIDE ONLY. Although it is long, it is not comprehensive and does not contain ALL the information you need. I have also never made a still for I never obtained a license to do so. However, the ones covered in this instructable will provide a basis for anyone to attempt to make one at their own risk.
I assume no responsibility for the use/misuse of the information presented in this instructable.
Please vote for this and the instructables to follow to be considered for the book contest.
Your favorable votes are much appreciated and the motivation to devote hours to typing this information.

P.S. If you want to me add something that should be here tell me and if I agree I will add it. Spelling mistakes and other stuff like that too will be appreciated.


Step 1: Fermentation

Anyway, lets start with the basics, Fermentation
Fermentation as known in biology, is a method used by organisms to break down glucose.
There are two kinds:
and Lactic Acid
For our endeavors, our only concern is the alcoholic fermentation.
The alcoholic fermentation process can be described as such.

In a Anaerobic (no oxygen) environment
Glucose(C6H12O6) + yeast = Carbon Dioxide (CO2) + Ethanol (C2H5OH)
In alcoholic fermentation, the yeast require an environment that lacks oxygen. That may sound difficult but there is a catch to this, yeast initial need oxygen to bud (reproduce) in large amounts. To start a successful alcoholic fermentation, it is very important that there is dissolved oxygen in the mash(substance that will be fermented).

So, to get a mass started you will need:
Base that will be fermented (Table sugar is fine if making vodka or other flavorless alcohols)
Yeast ( I recommend that you use brewers yeast as it is capable of producing more % alcohol)

Water ( spring water or any kind of water you would drink is suitable, hard water is not really a good choice)
Carboy ( a large glass container that looks like those jugs that hold water for those water dispensers, a carbon however has an angled top unlike the water jug that has a flat top.)
Air lock ( usually inserted into a cork which has a hole for it, its allows CO2 generated from the fermentation to escape by bubbling through water but does not allow atmospheric air to enter the vessel for the water is blocking it.
Hydrometer (This a floating device that will tell you the density of the mash, it will allow you to mix the appropriate amount of sugar, tell you when the fermentation is done/dry and the percent alcohol of the substance, a MUST have)
" sanitizer" (To have a successful fermentation, it is imperative that you have clean and sterile area for the yeast to bud. The reason behind this is, in the early stages of Fermentation, yeast buds much slower then bacteria. If bacteria is present, it is possible that the bacteria will overtake the fermentation and it will be ruined. For this reason, I used one step sanitizer that is non-toxic and does its job very well.)
Tactin acid ( its for wine, some recipes require it.)
'Pectic 'Enzyme( for wine, if your doing a fruit wine)

Optional Supplies
Yeast nutrient (While grapes provide a complete balance of nutrients for yeast, if using table sugar, there is little usable nutrients for the yeast to bud healthy. For this reason, yeast nutrient is added before to help augment the environment and providing the required nutrients.
Yeast Energizer (This is added to the fermentation if it seems unusually slow or stuck, more on this later)
Clearing Agent ( This will get your mass Really clear.)
Oak Cubes( This can be added if your making wine for flavor, the right amount depends on the volume you are making and the package/ store will tell you how much you need.)

Now, where to get these supplies?
1. The easiest way, is to go online and search for brew stores. They will sell everything you are looking for, atleast the list above anyway.
2. If you know of a brew store near you, that is not a bad place to look. Sometimes they may be more expensive then the online stores, but the plus is you don't have to pay for shipping. Also the staff (atleast at the one near me) , was very knowledgeable and friendly.

Now, as you were buying the items, you may have hit the problem of selecting the right strain.
There are many types of yeast available, some are better choices than others. Some are to be used for red wines, white wines, full body, half body, and all produce their own unique taste. I would not be able to advise you on what to select for I have only ever used Champagne yeast for its high yield of 18%

After you have all the ingredients, here is how to put it all together

1. Sanitize EVERYTHING!!! bacterial infection is no fun.
2. Rehydrate your yeast according to the package.
3. Dissolve sugar into the hot/warm water, the amount of sugar you put into the water is determined by what kind of yeast your using. The package should tell you the amount of alcohol the yeast is capable of producing. if it is 15%, you want to float your hydrometer until you have about 14% potential alcohol. If your hydrometer does not have the potential alcohol meter with it, the raw SG or specific gravity will have to be converted. Conversion tables are online. One quick note, for the amount of water, you want to make sure that you have in the end less base volume then the container size. The reason for this is that the fermentation can sometime bubble and overflow if it is filled to the brim. So to properly make sure you have the right amount of base, if making a sugar mass, have about 1/4 total volume hot water and then add all the sugar you need, you can use a hydrometer or go online and there is a way to figure out exactly how much you need. After you add the sugar, add cold water to achieve the right temperature and volume. If making a wine, follow the instructions if you bought a kit. If your making it from fresh fruit, look for recipes, there are numerous available.
4. if you have it, stir in the yeast nutrient into the mash. The package should have how much is recommended you put in by volume.
5. Stir the base vigorously, to dissolve oxygen its is important and there is no such thing as too much stirring.
6. Put the yeast solution into the base and stir gently for even distribution.
7. Add the oak cubes, tactin acid and pectine enzyme if you are making wine and the recipe requires them.
8. Put cork in with airlock.
9. Keep the carboy in a warm location, depending on the yeast, but usually 75-85 degrees for quick fermentation, colder temps will slow it down and higher ones can kill the yeast. Also keep the carboy out of direct sunlight.

The fermentation will take a few day if its a sugar mash and if the conditions are ideal. If not, it will take longer.
if successful, you should see little bubbles of CO2 going up.

Trouble Shooting
1. The fermentation is not going.
There can be numerous factors for this.
A. You killed the yeast when hydrating them too hot.
Try adding more yeast
B. There was too much sugar in the mash and the yeast are unable to reproduce.
Try diluting the sugar concentration by adding more water.
C. You didn't sanitize the equipment well enough
You will prob have to start over

2. Slow fermentation
A. Too much sugar.
Try diluting the sugar concentration by adding more water.
B. Not enough Oxygen was dissolved into it.
Stir the solution

Or you can try adding the yeast energizer if you have it.

Step 2: Primary to Secondary

After the fermentation is done, you want to pour the liquid part into another container. Leave the settled stuff behind. This is called Racking.
You can do this 3 different ways.
You can pour it in (not recommended)
Use a manual siphon (not recommended)
Use a Auto siphon (recommended)

After it is in the secondary let it settle. If there is more stuff on the bottom rack it again. Finally, after it looks relatively clear, use the clearing agent to get it really clear.

If you are making wine, that is it. Your done. Just let it age, usually 6 months is the recommended. You could always drink it after it is done, but i hear its not that good.

For E85 and hard stuff, you need to do something called Distillation
Which means, we go to the next step!

Step 3: Distillation

What is Distillation?
Distillation in science describes a process in which the boiling points of substances in a solution are utilized to separate the compounds.

How does this apply to our mash?
Well, to make it a higher percent alcohol, you need to separate it from the water and other by products of fermentation.

How do you do that?
Well, you need a distillation apparatus of course.

How do I make one?
Depends what type do you want to make?

What types are there?
Well, there are three types

Pot still
Fractionating Still
Compound Still

With that in mind, you may ask "which is the easiest to make" and the answer would be the pot still. However, the pot still is not very efficient and you would have to distill over and over again to reach a purity of 90%. On the other hand, if you were to use a fractionating still, you would have to only distill 2 or 3 times to reach such a purity. Finally, if you were to use a compound still, you would only have to distill once to obtain the same purity,
I will not really go over how to make any of these stills step by step but by explaining the process, you should be able to make your own.

Pot Still.
A pot still is a vessel that holds the mash and once it boils, collects the vapor and re-condenses it to a liquid form.

Fractionating Still
This still is much like a pot still; however, this still has material on the top that makes the vapor condense and fall back into the pot. Some of it however collects on the condensers and eventually will be able to reach the top of the column and be collected as it hits a condenser.

Compound Still
Much like a fractionating still but runs the vapor in a closed loop. After an equilibrium is achieved, you can slowly extract the alcohol that has reached the top.

Still Basics
if you are making a condenser, use copper it has very little heat resistance.
Also, use copper for apparently it makes it taste better.
For fractionating and compound stills, more surface area the better. Pot scrubbers are commonly used.
Never use an open flame, for alcohol vapors are explosive.
There is alot of math involved in creating the right size etc. with the fractionating and compound still.
To reduce the amount you need to distill as well as to increase the amount of alcohol present, use a pot still to do a strip run. A strip run is when you use a pot still to reduce the amount of water by collecting 100% of the vapors until 100 degrees C.
Patience is the key, and greed will get you an inferior product.
At 1 ATM or 760 mmHg, the max percent obtainable from distillation is 96% without a chemical to break the attraction between water and alcohol. Most chemicals that do that, are poisonous such as benzene .

Step 4: Still Operation

After you have a still, operation depends on what type of still are using.

For all stills, basic operation is to:
1. Heat the substance so that the substance produces vapor.
2. The initial vapor that comes out (Foreshots) at 64.7 °C or around there will be Methanol. Although an alcohol, in large amounts it is poisonous and can cause blindness. You should discard the appropriate amount which can be found on the internet. If you are running a pot still, you will throw out alot more than a fractionating still or compound still.
3. The next vapor that comes out when the temperature is or near 78.4 °C will be the Ethanol. However, the ethanol can be separated into 3 stages.

All contain ethanol but the heads and tails are contaminated with other substances while the heart will be nearly pure ethanol.
You can choose to have the heads and tail in your drink but will taste bad. Save them and distill it again.
If you are making biofuel, just save it all. It can be used.

When the temperature nears 100, you should stop for all you will get at that point is water.

Step 5: Voila! Your Done!

After the final product is extracted, the proof (especially on a compound still) will be atleast 90%. Less on a compound and even less on a pot still with one distillation. Now, if you are using the finished product to drink, you want to dilute it to 40% alcohol. This will give you "vodka". You can then add flavor extracts to turn that vodka into other liquors. Commercial Liquors are difficult to make and require years.

If you want to make e85 however, you need to do a few more things.
1. You need to make sure, that the proof is around 190.
2. You need to dry the alcohol and remove water by running it through Zeolite or a similar product.
3. You mix 15% gas with 85% ethanol. This is E85 and can run in most cars made after 2000?(somewhere near there)
<p>Perfume distillation a bit off topic.</p>
<p>Annyone though of distilling coffee with lactobacillius bacteria? The coffee contains high concentrations of chlorgenic acid ( an natural Polyphenol) that certain bacteria can break down into simpler poly phenols.</p>
<p>if poisoned by drinking methanol, drinking the same amount of ethanol will cancel out the methanol</p><p>so if you drink a sot of 40% methanol, a shot of 40% ethanol will save you</p><p>J</p>
<p>this is not a good plan of attack. </p><p>Methanol has a high toxicity in humans. If as little as 10 mL of pure methanol is ingested, for example, it can break down into formic acid, which can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve, and 30 mL is potentially fatal, although the median lethal dose is typically 100 mL (4 fl oz) (i.e. 1–2 mL/kg body weight of pure methanol). <br><br>Reference dose for methanol is 0.5 mg/kg/day. Toxic effects take hours to start, and effective antidotes can often prevent permanent damage. Because of its similarities in both appearance and odor to ethanol (the alcohol in beverages), it is difficult to differentiate between the two (such is also the case with denatured alcohol). However, there are cases of methanol resistance, such as that of Mike Malloy, who was the victim of a failed murder attempt by methanol in the early 1930s<br><br>Methanol is toxic by two mechanisms. First, methanol (whether it enters the body by ingestion, inhalation, or absorption through the skin) can be fatal due to its CNS depressant properties in the same manner as ethanol poisoning. <br><br>Second, in a process of toxication, it is metabolized to formic acid (which is present as the formate ion) via formaldehyde in a process initiated by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver.<br><br>Methanol is converted to formaldehyde via alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and formaldehyde is converted to formic acid (formate) via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The conversion to formate via ALDH proceeds completely, with no detectable formaldehyde remaining. Formate is toxic because it inhibits mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, causing the symptoms of hypoxia at the cellular level, and also causing metabolic acidosis, among a variety of other metabolic disturbances.</p><p>If you are truly interested in things of this nature, then my suggestion is to find a person who does know what they are doing, and learn from experience. the books can teach you alot, but one mistake here and you could lose your life at worst case, or at best your be horribly sick for a week.</p>
<p>J....I don't think that's accurate. Drinking methanol is a different kind of alcohol than ethanol and is not safe for consumption. It can lead to blindness and even death in larger amounts. I would recommend avoiding any alcohol except ethanol.</p>
<p>is it like homemade biogasoline?</p>
<p>Although this is a bit off topic I am thinking of distilling an compound called retuni from Lactobacillus r. The boiling point is near 80 degrees C. There is still a lot I don't know about the setup like impurities in the solution that would boil with the retuni compound and the breakdown of certain chemicals that may affect the production of this natural antibotic.</p>
<p>Hey, thanks for the detailed directions! I've found that another cause of slow fermentation can also be too much cold. When I ferment in my basement in the winter, I have this problem, so I have to move it to a warmer place, like my kitchen. I'm glad you emphasized sterility, since that's very important! As far as yeast, a 'turbo yeast' will give you up to about 20 percent alcohol. I found a great new book called 'How to Master Moonshine' that gives a lot of details on this. There's a whole chapter on freeze distillation that tells you how to concentrate the alcohol without needing a still at all. If you freeze it for a day or so, you can just pour off the alcohol since it won't freeze, but the water will! All you need is a plastic jug! Just use plain sugar, a little yeast energizer or nutrient, and a champagne or turbo yeast and you can make vodka! If you want other kinds of alcohol, the book has a recipe section so you can make lots of different drinks! I got my copy on Amazon, but I don't know if it's available any where else or not.</p>
Under the carboy paragraph you've carboy misspelled as carbon
I kept thinking that I'd read it's legal to brew for personal use, not for sale. Basically, you can't go into business.
Last time I checked, it was still legal in the US to distill up to 100 gallons per year for PERSONAL consumption which includes use as a biofuel (although you will need a very low sugar content in the solution for biofuel). You may NOT sell it NOR transport it without a license.
Hi ,<br>Can any one help me out in some calculation work its really very urgent , please help me out ..... i need to consume 1932.3kg/hr of CO2 with the help of Algae in a pond (water) for example Raceway pond , so i need to know the specific area to construct that pond and its sizing and dimension (length,etc) and the quantity of water needed and amount of algae used so that it easily consumes the mentioned amount of CO2 rate per hour..... please help me out soon you can also drop your suggestion and questions if any my email id is : sudhirmalik2011@gmail.com ....i will be waiting for your reply soon and i'll be highly thankful to you, if someone can help please do tell me its very urgent....<br><br>Thank you
use sherry yeast , it yields highest % of alcohol, if it is added to a normal sugar water base.
The problem here is one of definition. Ethanol = ethyl alcohol and methanol = methyl alcohol. Alcohol is a chemical term for a group of substances of which methanol and ethanol are both a part. Because ethanol is the alcohol that isn't poisonous to humans, it's what most people think of when they hear the world &quot;alcohol&quot;.<br />
64.7 &deg;C is the boiling point of methanol and is poisonous in rather small amounts such as 3 ml. at 10 ml causes blindness.<br/><br/>ethanol has a boiling point of 78.4 &deg;C<br/><br/>When distilling fruit mass it is recommended to boil it slowly to 80&deg;C and keep it at that<br/>If temperature was higher the distillate wouldn't contain as much flavour.<br/>If distilling that way you should throw away the head (its about 1% of distillate)<br/>(fruit distillates yeld about 15 % of mass) , keep the middle and save the tail.<br/>Then you mix tail with water (50-50)and distill it again if you want it drinkable.<br/><br/>cybercorfu plx be more comprehensive in your posts ; <br/>&quot;ethanol=alcohol methanol=toxic&quot; &lt;--not equal<br/><br/>
I'm impressed! you sound like you know what yer doin. maybe you can answer a couple of questions for me. first, whats an " auto-siphon" and where can i git one? second, can you add more sugar and yeast and re-rack it again?
Ok, well here is the thing. An auto-siphon basically allows you to siphon without creating a suction with your mouth. I would highly recommend it and can be purchased from really any home brew store. As for the add more sugar and yeast re-racking, well there it can depend. I am not real sure what you are asking, but if you mean a solution that you already fermented sugars in, aka already has an alcohol content then its a yes but only to a certain degree. Basically, certain yeast are only capable of fermenting to a certain percent then they die from alcohol as it messes with the stability of the yeast. the typical yeast does around 8-13 percent. if you get champagne yeast, it can prob do up to 18% and some mixtures (with yeast, yeast hulls, and other nutrients) can prob do up to 21 or 22%. However, i wouldn't recommend really anything above 18 cause it really isn't all that good tasting. You get alot of fusal and other weird tastes. As for figuring out how much sugar to add to how much water, I would suggest you by a hydrometer, which is a floating weight with a scale on it that measures specific gravity. the specific gravity of water is 1 and as you add more sugar, it goes beyond 1 and when it is fermented all the way, the meter should be lighter than 1. I think it was .999. There is a certain ratio of sugar to alcohol conversion and most of these hydrometers have a thing on it as well that will tell you. Hope that answered your questions.
fer anybody what cares, alcohols vaporize at specific temperatures. here they is, Acetone-134 F, Methanol-147 F, Ethyl Acetate-171 F, ETHANOL-172 F, 2-Propanol-180 F, 1-Propanol-207 F, Water-212 F, Amyl Alcohol-280 F, Furfurol-322 F. hope this helps somebody!
Not Methanol my friend but rather ethanol big diference... Boiling point <br/>78.4 &deg;C, 352 K, 173 &deg;F of ethanol=alcohol methanol=toxic<br/><a rel="nofollow" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanol">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanol</a><br/>
Got a little confused on the spelling.<br/><br/>Mash!=Mass<br/>Carboy!=Carbon<br/>Healthy!=Healthily <br/>
No, Mash is not a misspelling, you apparently don't know beverage fermentation terminology. A mash is the combination of fermentable liquids and the yeast. Same again with Carboy, a carboy is a large glass container, one of those 5 gallon jugs that hold water for water dispensers. They are commonly used in hobby fermentation, both wine and beer making.
I know, he spelt mash as mass carboy as carbon, etc
O really? Meh it must have been the auto spell checker.
Is there anything else readers of this Instructable would like? I wrote this a while ago and there is always more to be added. However, I am only interesting in investing time if there are specific things people are looking for. Merci.
This is more of a science lesson than an instructable. It would be more useful to see pictures/description of your (not you're) own still. How can I make one from material readily available from a hardware store?
You can make it from hardware store supplies. But as i said, i have not made one for it really is illegal for the purpose of what this instructable. I am considering obtaining a fuel permit to make E85. If I do, i will post pictures of what i made. But honestly, I am also kind of reluctant to post the ones I have designed for it took weeks to develop them. Many of them are a bit unusual but theoretically very effective. Additionally, there are many factors that will determine the viability of a still. material you use, length of parts, width, surface area etc. There are like atleast 15 different formulas that must be used. The information here, is really like everything you need to know except the making of a still. The images that are attached to this, is really all u need. replace the lab glassware parts for parts that serve the same purpose.
You mean like kettles and copper pipe? I agree.
Aww, what a pity such a low score despite all the work. Very well, I will include a plan to make your own still from common hardware store goods. Look for it in the following days.
one of the bold things at the top wasn't bold like the others and in the 2nd to last paragraph it says "are dificult to make and require years" years of what?

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