Step 1: Vocab
Sharp: A black note on a piano. These keys are just like normal natural white keys, but raised a half step.
Flat: A black note on a piano. These keys are just like normal natural white keys, but lowered a half step.
Half Step: A note that isn't a full jump from one note to another. Most half steps are from a white key to a black key, unless you are to jump from B to C, or E to F.
Measure: A section in a staff in music. This includes notes that follow the rules of the specific time signature.
Time Signature: A "rule" in music that you follow to stay in tempo and not play offbeat.