I'll start things off by saying welcome! This a very fun and enjoyable hobby and you should be able to find a lot of enjoyment in your pipes and a great community surrounding it.
I will also say that yes, smoking is in fact bad for you be it a pipe, cigar, or cigarette. Since you're here though you probably have already made the decision to smoke and all things considered it's good that you've chosen the pipe. The dangers associated with smoking are greatly diminished with pipe smoking as inhalation of the smoke is not done and it, like cigar smoking, is largely for the flavour. Yes nicotine is a part of it but certainly not the main attraction.
Well let's get started shall we?
Step 1: What You Will Need.
-An estate pipe to work on (obviously)
-Reamer. The one pictured is a Castleford set of reamers and is my preferred type. The other that is used by many is the Senior reamer but I don't really care for it.
-Drill bits. These are a maybe but good to have just in case.
-Buffing wheels and something to attach them to. Not really needed but they make your life easier. Mine attach to my drill.
-Carnuba wax (optional really)
-High proof alcohol. Everclear is the preferred but I just used this vodka.
-'Magic eraser' (not pictured)
-High grit sandpaper (not pictured)
-A pipe to smoke while you work (optional)
Now let's get to work.
Step 2: Determine What Needs to Be Done.
-Take a look at the rim. Does it have 'cake' on it? Well if it does (like mine here) it will need to be removed. If it's slightly charred there's only slightly destructive things that can be done to remove it but that's beyond the scope of this instructable.
-Look at the stem. Is it oxidized? Is there a lot of 'tooth chatter' around the bit? There are several materials that a stem can be made out of and the type we'll be dealing with here is Vulcanite. Eseentially hardened rubber. This material will oxidize over time as the sulfur used in the hardening rises to the surface. Lucite, and acrylic stems do not oxidize and are much easier to deal with.
-Can you remove the stem? Gently twist the stem and try and remove it. Don't twist or pull too hard as it's possible to crack/break the shank (the wood the stem fits in to) or break the tenon (the part that fits in to the shank) off which would be no good.
I couldn't take the stem out when I got this pipe so I put it in the freezer for a few minutes and the cooling allowed me to twist and remove the stem.
And now that we know what we need to do let's move on!
Step 3: Some Basic Cleaning.
You'll want to swab your pipe cleaner through until it comes out as nice as it went in and this can sometimes take a good deal of time.
Step 4: The Stem.
Since the oxidization on this vulcanite stem isn't so bad we can get right to it but some stems require a little something more. Some will be entirely a sick yellow/green colour and this will call for a bleach bath. You'll want to coat the tenon, the flat edge that it leads in to, and any maker's marks on the stem (metal or not), and any metal in petroleum jelly so that they aren't eaten by the bleach and then drop the stem in some bleach. I've used it undiluted with no ill effect so that's what I can recommend. I will say that you should monitor it closely and check on it every few minutes so it spends no longer in there than it needs to. This will leave it rough and badly needing a polishing.
We will start by masking the shank so that we can do our work and not lose the nice flush fit of the stem to shank as we do our work.
One option that you have is a so called 'magic eraser'. Moisten it up like you normally would and start scrubbing. The 'magic eraser' is a very fine abrasive so it suits this task beautifully.
If you want or need to clean up the tooth chatter you'll need to hit it with some sandpaper. Be prepared to spend a good amount more time cleaning up the sanding marks. I used 600 grit wet/dry in it's wet state as the chatter wasn't bad at all.
After all of this it is time to bring it over to the buffing wheel to hit it with some rouge. Be sure and tie your hair back it it's long like mine because you do not want to get it caught.
This is a four inch wheel with the drill set at roughly 800-1000 rpm. Be very careful not to let the stem get too hot as burning it is a possibility.
Touch your stem to the buffing wheel at roughly the 7 o'clock position if it is spinning towards you and don't let it catch any edges as it could rip the pipe from your hands and throw it wherever it wants. It's hard to describe the motions that you'll use but you should get the hang of it pretty quickly.
Step 5: Working the Rim.
Okay now that the stem is out of the way we can take care of that rim. Luckily this part is simple. Take a cotton rag (I used old t-shirt scraps) and wet it pretty well with some saliva (alright so saliva isn't required, you can use water if you like). Now get your elbow grease and start rubbing that gunk off.
This takes time so don't be discouraged if you're not making progress very quickly.
Step 6: Reaming
Now that our rim is nice and clean we can ream the pipe. Reaming is the removal of some of the 'cake' or carbon build up in the tobacco chamber. This 'cake' should not be very thick (about 1.5 mm ideally) and you will on occasion have a pipe in your hands that has a very large amount of 'cake' built up that you'd have trouble getting a golf tee down. This is because some of the old hands of pipe smoking never reamed their pipes and viewed them as disposable tools with which to smoke their tobacco. Not necessarily a wrong view but not one that goes hand in hand with collecting pipes.
This pipe didn't really need a ream but I did it anyway because that's just the kind of guy I am. Take your reamer and gently start cutting down that carbon.
Now after reaming you may want to give your pipe the 'salt and alcohol' treatment. This is accomplished by plugging the draft hole with a pipe cleaner, filling the bowl with the kosher salt (table salt will do but coarse and non-iodized is preferred), and saturating the salt with alcohol. Leave it to soak for about a day and then empty it of salt and clean out the chamber. The purpose of this is to rid the pipe of any ghosts of tobaccos past that it may have. I personally always give the pipe an exploratory smoke to determine if it actually needs this treatment or not.
One thing about alcohol though. If you spill any on the exterior of your pipe be sure to wipe it off immediately. The stains used on the wood are alcohol based and so alcohol will strip the stain from your pipe if you don't wipe it right away.
Step 7: But What Are the Drill Bits For?
If your pipe (like this one here) has a bit of obstruction of the draft hole you may need to clean it out. If you were able to pass a pipe cleaner in to the bowl in the first step you can just skip this step but if not...read on!
Now you must be very careful here because you don't want to be putting an unneeded hole in your pipe! This is very easy with straight pipes but bents require a little more care.
Find a drill bit that will fit the draft hole nicely and feed it in. Mine was 9/64.
Either hold the bit in a vise or grab it with pliers and gently turn it and it should clear it up easily. If you feel that you need a drill here then you should probably take a smaller drill bit because you shouldn't.
Step 8: Done!...Well Almost.
However you're like me and want to bring it back up to looking like new you'll want to give a coat of carnuba wax to give it the shine it deserves.
Put a new buffing wheel on and get out the carnuba!
A nice no-stitch flannel wheel is the preferred but use what you can get. There are some great wood buffing systems out there and one used by many pipe makers and wood workers is the Beall system which is one that I'll be investing in at some point.
Start your wheel spinning at about 800-1000 rpm and give it a small amount of carnuba. You won't need much.
Give your pipe a coat of the wax. Hold your pipe firmly and use a light touch, let your wheel do the work.
Step 9: Finished!
You can now enjoy your new pipe and add it to your collection.
Now that you've got your pipe you'll probably want information about the finer points of the smoking of it. I recommend that you head on over to the forums at http://pipesmagazine.com/ . The community over there is great and is always willing to give a newbie the information they need to get the most out of their pipes.
You can also head over to http://pipedia.org/ for information on makers and various other things related to pipes.