This Instructable is based on Linux Ubuntu 9.04. The instructions on setting it up with newer versions will be pretty much identical
I will focus on just setting up a file server in this Instructable, although Samba can be expanded to run as an Active Domain Controller for Windows and a lot more
Step 1: Background on Samba
Samba-3 by Example explains further, saying:
Samba is software that can be run on a platform other than Microsoft Windows, for example, UNIX, Linux, IBM System 390, OpenVMS, and other operating systems. Samba uses the TCP/IP protocol that is installed on the host server. When correctly configured, it allows that host to interact with a Microsoft Windows client or server as if it is a Windows file and print server.
From The Official Samba HOWTO:
The goal behind the project is one of removing barriers to interoperability.
Samba is a software package that gives network administrators flexibility and freedom in terms of setup, configuration, and choice of systems and equipment. Because of all that it offers, Samba has grown in popularity, and continues to do so, every year since its release in 1992.
For more details on Samba or SMB, see:
Intro to Samba
- From here