Introduction: INTRODUCTION TO C++


C++ is a general purpose programming language that supports various computer programming models such as object-oriented programming and generic programming. It was created by Bjarne Stroustrup and, “Its main purpose was to make writing good programs easier and more pleasant for the individual programmer.”*

By learning C++, you can create applications that will run on a wide variety of hardware platforms such as personal computers running Windows, Linux, UNIX, and Mac OS X, as well as small form factor hardware such as IoT devices like the Raspberry PI and Arduino–based boards.

Step 1: History of C++

Picture of History of C++

According to Stroustrup: "the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C".[14] This name is credited to Rick Mascitti (mid-1983)[10] and was first used in December 1983. When Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. The name comes from C's "++" operator (which increments the value of a variable) and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program.

C++ is standardized by an ISO working group known as JTC1/SC22/WG21. So far, it has published four revisions of the C++ standard and is currently working on the next revision, C++17.

Step 2: Objects and Inheritance

C++ introduces object-oriented programming (OOP) features to C. It offers classes, which provide the four features commonly present in OOP (and some non-OOP) languages: abstraction, encapsulation,inheritance, and polymorphism. One distinguishing feature of C++ classes compared to classes in other programming languages is support for deterministic destructors, which in turn provide support for theResource Acquisition is Initialization (RAII) concept.

Inheritance allows one data type to acquire properties of other data types. Inheritance from a base class may be declared as public, protected, or private. This access specifier determines whether unrelated and derived classes can access the inherited public and protected members of the base class. Only public inheritance corresponds to what is usually meant by "inheritance". The other two forms are much less frequently used. If the access specifier is omitted, a "class" inherits privately, while a "struct" inherits publicly. Base classes may be declared as virtual; this is called virtual inheritance. Virtual inheritance ensures that only one instance of a base class exists in the inheritance graph, avoiding some of the ambiguity problems of multiple inheritance.

Step 3: Operators

Picture of Operators

C++ provides more than 35 operators, covering basic arithmetic, bit manipulation, indirection, comparisons, logical operations and others. Almost all operators can be overloaded for user-defined types, with a few notable exceptions such as member access (. and .*) as well as the conditional operator. The rich set of overloadable operators is central to making user-defined types in C++ seem like built-in types.


Picture of LIBRARIES

A large part of the C++ library is based on the Standard Template Library (STL). Useful tools provided by the STL include containers as the collections of objects (such as vectors and lists), iterators that provide array-like access to containers, and algorithms that perform operations such as searching and sorting.

Furthermore, (multi)maps (associative arrays) and (multi)sets are provided, all of which export compatible interfaces. Therefore, using templates it is possible to write generic algorithms that work with any container or on any sequence defined by iterators. As in C, the features of the library are accessed by using the #include directive to include a standard header. C++ provides 105 standard headers, of which 27 are deprecated.

Step 5: Introduction Finished

That was much about C++ and what is it.If you are new to programming you should start off with c++ and then go further in programming. I will be giving my next instructable now on INTEGERS AND DIFFERENT DATA TYPES or maybe something else till then enjoy.....


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About This Instructable




Bio: I am a computer programmer and electronics enthusiast and want to develop a world full of programmers because " PROGRAMMERS NEVER DIE ".
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