In this lab we learned the process and steps to make soap. For our soap the oil we used was olive oil and the fat that we used was shortening. The additional stuff we used was things that gave our soap a scent to it. What we used was lime juice and a cinnamon scented oil. As a result of adding this it gave our soap a good smell instead of the smell of olive oil and shortening. For our acid we used sodium hydroxide and to prepare for this we had to have on rubber gloves and our goggles on.
The equipment we needed for this lab was our oil that we picked out, the shortening, hot plate, a temperature gauge, goggles, gloves and our molds for our soap.
The measurements we used were very precise and this is because we wanted to make good soap. For this we used 119ml of sodium hydroxide, 102.6 grams of olive oil, and 384 grams of shortening. By having these measurements we were able to make good soap.
For our extra ingredients we didn't have a sequence we kind of just dumped lime juice and cinnamon oil in our soap.
While all of this was happening we had to have certain amount of heat applied to our soap mixture in order for it to work and that temperature had to be between 49-54 degrees Celsius. If the heat got past that then we had to take it off the heat plate so that the temperature could drop back down to what it needed to be. Also while this was happening we had to pretty much be stiring our soap constantly.
By keeping the heat at the same temperature for a long period of time it starts to make the soap solidify and soon it will become a solid. We know its done when the mixture starts to become really thick with like a creamy texture and when it gets to that point you take it off the heat plate and put it in your mold and let it cool down.
For our mold we used a Pepsi cup and for our curing time it is still curing so I do not know it and we have not done the ph testing yet.
For clean up we had to wash out all of the materials we used with soap and water and we had to make sure our hot plates were turned off and also that our station was wiped down and oil free.
The qualities of the fats and oils determine the final product because the better quality of fats and oils you have the better your soap is going to be.
Additional ingredients could be anything i guess like scents and like rough stuff and it doesn't really affect the soap it just makes it how you like it.
A sap value is the amount of sodium hydroxide you need to put in your soap. If you put to much in it then the soap will be to basic and it will burn your skin when its applied to it.
If you chose to leave out excessive amount of unsaponified fatty acids then the quality of your soap will be very bad because you have to have a specific amount of every ingredient otherwise your soap will be to basic.
Ph measures the acidity of something and in order for your soap to not be to basic your Ph has to be at a specific Ph level.
I do not know how well our soap works because i have not gotten the chance to use it.