I decided recently that my home cinema system could do with a nice subwoofer, and rather than buy something, I thought I'd build myself one...

NOTE: This is only a short explanation, there is far more info here - http://www.yourmissus.com/subwoofer/

Step 1: Cutting

Construction starts with measuring and cutting the MDF.
My design with its double skinned walls does require quite a few panels - 18 in fact, and to ensure we end up with a rigid and airtight box the cuts must be very accurate.
Ideally for this task you would use a tablesaw - we are looking to achieve accuracy of panels to better than 1mm.
This would take some doing (or at least a lot of plane work and sanding) with a handsaw or a circular saw.
This first stage of marking out and cutting is very important (and a little boring) but it cannot be rushed.
The end result really does depend on how accurate these panels are cut, so measure twice, cut once, take your time etc...
It will pay dividends later.
Hi,<br><br>Just 1 question, I couldn't see the exact dimensions of the MDFboards can you tell me please??
Well done, I&nbsp;bet this thing weighs a ton!<br />
&nbsp;hehe!<br /> <br /> Well at least 40-50kilos I would say.<br /> <br /> Cheers<br /> Dan<br />
Do you know anything about the sound output when wired in series or parallel? I built a planar isobaric box for my car (so many benefits... Stackable, protects the drivers, better sound quality...) and when I switched the wiring from 2 ohm to 8 ohm the output volume got much higher. Is that just an amp quirk or a property of these enclosures? Usually amps potential output goes up when you lower the resistance, from what I have read. Very confused here.
What you've described is not normally the case.<br/>You see that connecting two 4ohm speakers in series will give you an 8 ohm impedance. Connecting the same two 4 ohm speakers in parallel will give a 2 ohm impedance. Since power is V<sup>2 / R reducing the impedance from 8 to 2 ohms will increase the power 4fold.</sup><br/><br/>There is a caveat though.... (isn't there always!!) Most, but not all amps can drive a 2ohm impedance, because 2 ohms does take more current and therefore power some amplifiers will just cut out, especially at high volumes.<br/><br/>If it works for you though, and your amp isn't getting too hot, then you'll probably be ok...<br/><br/>I suspect what has happened in your case is that you have the polarity of one of the drivers wrong... You want the drivers moving in opposite directions, mabybe in your 2ohm (parallel config) you had them moving in the same direction and therefore cancelling each other out?.... If your speakers are set up like mine, then you'll need to connect them out of phase (i.e for a parallel config connect the +ve of one to the -ve of the other and the -ve of one to the +ve of the other) ... for a series config (8 ohm) then connect the two +ve terminals together and then connect the amp to the -ve terminals of the speakers.<br/><br/>Good luck and thanks for the comment<br/>
ok so what will i get if i have 8 8ohm speaker wired in parallel (soz i am too thick to work it out!)
8 x 8ohm in parallel will give you 1ohm.<br/>Parallel resistances/impedances are calculated by summing the reciprocals and then finding the reciprocal of that, so<br/> = 1/(1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8)<br/><br/>Which is 1.<br/><br/>1 ohm is a very low impedance to present to an amplifier though, so you may have problems. You might be better off wiring in series parallel to give something more sensible - 4 pairs of speakers wired in series connected in parallel would give a more reasonable 4 ohms<br/><br/>Dan<br/>
ok thnx soo much you really helped me, the amplifier i need runs 6-16v DC and 4-16ohms i am making a mini 8 driver (18x18mm they re so small) line array, so heres a diagram correct me if i am wrong. A --Speaker1--Speaker3--Speaker5--Speaker7 M | | | | P --Speaker2--Speaker4--Speaker6--Speaker8 Thnx for replying so quickly. i will probably post an instructable when i get the speakers and start to make it! thanks again! :-)
the lines next to 'M' are supposed to show each pair connected but when i posted the comment it got rid of all the unnessesary spaces >:-(
That's right yeah. Take speaker 1 and 2, wire them in series (negative of speaker 1 to positive of speaker 2) Take speaker 3 and 4, wire them in series (negative of speaker 3 to positive of speaker 4) Take speaker 5 and 6, wire them in series (negative of speaker 5 to positive of speaker 6) Take speaker 7 and 8, wire them in series (negative of speaker 7 to positive of speaker 8) Then wire the positives of speaker 1,3,5 and 7 to the amp positive terminal, and the negatives of speaker 2,4,6 and 8 to the amp negative terminal. That little lot will present a load of 4 ohms to the amp Good luck
Hmm. I may have found a fluke then. With the speakers wired in phase or out, I still have more power in 8ohm (tried both polarities as I thought I might have forgotten which way I wired one of them). What caused me to switch in the first place was I noticed my sub volume didn't increase in a very even fashion with my midranges. At a low volume with it balanced, the subs would be overpowering at a high volume. With them balanced at a high volume, the subs would be inaudible at a low volume. I suppose I just have a retarded amp. From what I have heard, sound quality tends to be better at a higher impedance as well. Any thoughts on that?
I guess it is possible that your amp just isn't happy running at two ohms. So long as the sound level is high enough for you running at 8, then great. Another alternative (assuming your amp is a stereo one bridged into mono) would be to drive each speaker from a separate channel of the stereo amp.
It's a 2ohm 300watt rms mono amp. I'm hoping to replace it with a stereo one by a more reputable brand in the future though. My current one is a bazooka, and I'm looking at alpine and pioneer. I've got a pioneer driving my midranges, and it sounds amazing. The problem with running stereo amp, is I would still need to make the signal mono. I doubt the isobaric configuration would perform well with signal only going to one driver. Eg, bass drum on only the left channel.
Do you get port noise from that ruffled carpet on the inside of the port?
No not really, turn it up loud enough and it will start to chuff, but not at reasonable listening volumes. Cheers for your comments.
Lol, for me, a reasonable volume level is not nearly enough :-P
LOL!! Fair play, whatever rocks your boat mate!! Mine would probably not go loud enough for you then.. Cheers for the interest in my project
...That's not to mention being able to get into the cabinet to replace a blown or damaged driver... This is seriously important because if you can't replace the driver you gotta rebuild the whole project. Having worked in this field I've seen how hard it is to open one of these boxes after it's been completely sealed. It's difficult at best and usually renders the project as scrap due to breakage of the building material.
Yeah, but you can see why they do it. Making the gasket and getting a good seal was very time consuming. I'm glad I did it though. Cheers for your comments
One could just as easily use a 90° bend available from most places that sell PVC fittings. It's what I do and it works well because of the uniformity of the curve. They usually cost less than $5. Preping the fittings isn't that hard either if you don't mind the cleaning chemicals and glue. Another added bonus to this is the flange on the end that can be used to further extend the port to match the harmonics of larger drivers.
Good point, I did consider using premade fittings, not sure why I opted to make one now...
OHHH isobaric woofers are sweet hey. well looks cool anyway.&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;..do six order bandpass isobaric.haha wooww way to be getting complicated hey :P&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;ANyway...&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;best calc tool for speaker enclosures. and is also free to download (freeware)&lt;br/&gt;&lt;a rel=&quot;nofollow&quot; href=&quot;http://www.linearteam.dk/default.aspx?pageid=winisdpro&quot;&gt;WinISDPro&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br/&gt;and here for abit of a tutorial thing&lt;br/&gt;&lt;a rel=&quot;nofollow&quot; href=&quot;http://www.the12volt.com/installbay/forum_posts.asp~TID~74558~PN~1&quot;&gt;Guide: Using WinISD&lt;/a&gt;&lt;br/&gt;<br/>
That was a really great idea to mount the speakers like that and make them out of phase. I've been building car audio subwoofer enclosures for myself and friends for a few years now. Right now, I'm making a box for four 6x9s. I'll post it when I'm done. I think I may take your idea with two 6.5"s. They're component speakers, so a bandpass box doesn't really make much sense, but I love the concept. I'll give it a try. I really wish I had a nice router.... Gotta use the Dremmel for now.
Good luck with it. Routers really aren't that expensive anymore, nor are they difficult to use. Good luck if you choose to buy one. Let me know how you get on with the 6.5"s Cheers -Dan
I sooooo want that router system! lol
It wasn't expensive, the router was like £35 pounds and the vacuum extract is just my old Dyson - I have a central vac now... see my other instructables!! Thanks for your interest. -Dan
"F"ing awesome man I have built some woofers myself and I gotta say your work is top notch
Wow! Thanks! Glad you enjoyed it. I'm sure anyone could do the same, it's just a case of using good tools, good materials and taking your sweet time. If you aren't happy with something, then do it again... Cheers -Dan
I'm extremely impressed (: AND jealous :P Nice one mate
Thanks for your interest! No need to be jealous, just build yourself one!!! Cheers -Dan
Well, I think I might spend the next few days making my own, I'll post some pics in a few days to let you know how it turned out! Thanks
Yeah, good luck, and take your time. That sub took me probably a whole month of evenings after work. So about 120-150 hours. ...but it's worth it for a nice finish and a nice sound
Hi toastyboy. there have been alot of 'arguments' above about whether your design is a subwoofer or just a woofer and whether is it isobaric or non-isobaric... i just have one question and a comment. How much did the whole project cost? And my comment is your daughter is very cute and im glad you could involve her. it's a bit of inspiration to me when i tell me little brother that he's too young to help. thanks for the instructable. and i hope your wife doesn't mind the "loudspeaker component designed to reproduce only extremely low bass frequencies" (if i called it a subwoofer/woofer i may be proven wrong in a barrage of comments) too annoying.
Hi Solitus,<br/><br/>Regarding the cost, I would say it came in at under &Acirc;&pound;150. This breaks down as:<br/>&Acirc;&pound;80 for the drivers<br/>&Acirc;&pound;20 for the mdf<br/>&Acirc;&pound;10 for the carpet<br/>&Acirc;&pound;10 for the electrics<br/>&Acirc;&pound;10 for fixings, screws, bolts<br/>&Acirc;&pound;10 glues, silicone and fillers<br/>&Acirc;&pound;10 piping bits and bobs<br/><br/>If you had to buy all new it would cost more, but the prices above assume that you don't (say) have to buy a full &Acirc;&pound;10 tub of glue and only use half of it etc...<br/><br/>The time element is far more expensive, I spent probably 100hours on this, even at &Acirc;&pound;10 an hour that's a grand!!<br/><br/>...but I loved doing it.<br/><br/>I'm glad you enjoyed my <em>&quot;enclosure containing a pair of transducers designed to produce (relatively) low frequencies within the bounds of the human audiable spectrum&quot;</em> !! ;-)<br/>-Dan<br/>
thanks. :-D that would be about $300 USD, but i know we have alot of those things lying around. im thinking of making a sub box for my car, and i am looking for designs. without the need to buy the drivers, this would be a cheap and easy design. :)
Yep, about $300 dollars, although stuff is the US is normally $ = &Acirc;&pound; so you might get it for less.<br/><br/>It does make for a nice small box, and if you have your drivers parameters then you can tailor the design to match.<br/><br/>Good luck!<br/>
Those are woofers not subwoofers....sigh..
Whats the difference? Are subwoofers just smaller or something?
Yeah, what it the difference then? Mine goes down to about 30Hz, Which is a subsonic freqency, so it's a subwoofer surely? Also, why plural? It's a subwoofer, not a subwoofers. Cheers -Dan
There's 2 subwoofers in there doofus, and my 12" goes to 24hz :D
The subwoofer is the assembly of said enclosure and the drivers, but I work in a mobile electronics shop(have exp in home theater)and folks in the mobile side of audio often refer to low freq drivers as "subs, subwoofers, woofers," or more simply the dia of the driver. This being said your not 100% wrong but you are, and your 12 will reproduce freq well lower than 24hz, it may not be with much amplitude but the wave will be there. also you won't be able to here it much lower than 20 if that. and to "swaggeringPagan" while I'm at it, the speakers being just out of phase will cause destructive interference, they need to be 180 deg in opposite phase. but considering the fact that your are talking about normal amplifiers and drivers, few amps have variable phase adjustments. In this design you lose considerable bandwidth, the problem with bandpass enclosures they do just what they are called, the allow a certain band to pass, this mens that the driver will only be able to efficiently reproduce freq in that band. you could sacrifice some output for more range, buy doing a standard sealed enclosure. you could obtain the same spl with a more powerful amplifier. On another note there is another enclosure that lacks high spl output characteristics but has the flattest freq curve I've seen. its called an a-periodic or infinant baffle enclosure. a periodic meaning there no freq peak. of course there is a peak but its virtually nonexistent. Its a very simple design concept but I'm not sure of any formulas on creating it. I learned at school that all they are comprised of is a standard sealed enclosure with a hole of undetermined size with and undetermined amount of fiberglass mat or similar material covering the hole. I can't honesty say I've ever heard or seen one, but I've wanted to attempt one, but I've no time. do some research online they are very interesting.
Thanks for your comments Snagglebeard, The speakers are 180degrees out of phase with each other. Regarding the passband of a 6th order sub, it can be as wide or as narrow as you like I tailored mine to match the response of my bookshelf speakers. Thanks -Dan
If you really want to argue semantics, it can be said that the entire unit is a single sub-woofer, and each of the speakers is a low-end driver. The driver itself is not a sub-woofer, it is a speaker that reproduces low-frequencies especially well. One could use a full-range driver as a sub-woofer, so long as it only receives the low-end output of the crossover. Not the best option, but it will work.
Hi FlyingWallaby, Thanks for your post. I think we are all (well nearly all) agreed that this is a subwoofer! :-) It certainly isn't a subwoofers, and it's not a woofer either, or a woofers! Anyway, call it what you want... but I'll call it a subwoofer. Thanks for your comments, glad you enjoyed reading about my (sub)woofer(s) ;-) -Dan
Hey Doofus,<br/>This <strong>ASSEMBLY</strong> is indeed a subwoofer. It uses dual isobaric mounted woofers capable of subsonic frequencies. As I'm sure you're aware, running two woofers face to face and out of phase halves the necessary air spring volume for the sealed portion of the enclosure.<br/><br/>But then you already knew that didn't you? <br/>
Hi SwaggeringPagan, Thanks for the comments, the isobaric loading does indeed half the necessary air volume required, so you do get a nice small sub. Small means stiff rigid panels which is good too. Thanks again for your interest. -Dan
Great box construction {very solid}, good overall concept, but not the best woofer choice. The Eminence Beta's are great drivers for their intended use {guitar amps, PA systems} but not for a sub. To get the high 97dB efficiency they trade off deep bass capability by using a thin/ light cone, light pleated cloth suspension, and short voice coil. This equals a high resonance frequency {53Hz} and limited Xmax {3mm linear electric}, neither good for sub use in terms on sound quality or durability. Driving a woofer 10 cycles or more below it's resonance {Fs} asks it to move exponentially further and further. Playing a 30Hz note at any decent volume these drivers are going to be moving way past their linear electrical Xmax, and at the physical limit of their suspension {8.6mm}. Also note the 250 watt rating is based on a limited bandwidth test standard invalid for low frequency use. While it will take copious power from 50Hz and up where cone motion is limited, low bass input will physically damage this woofer long before the coil would electrically burn out. The bandpass enclosure is this woofer's saving grace as it inherently limits cone motion {to a point}, and the iso loading drops the Fs by a bit {would guess mid to upper 40's} giving a bit more low end potential. Power wise you're safe to about 75-100w per woofer, above that they'll bottom out on the really low notes. If you ever change woofers a 10" with 30Hz or lower Fs and at least an 8mm linear Xmax would be a better bet. On the enclosure side {for prospective cloners} a shelf port is more effective than a round port in compact enclosures. Makes the box a bit larger and more difficult to construct, but makes up for it with better sound. Also use only poly-fill for damping in vented boxes. Fiberglass is better acoustically but should be restricted to sealed boxes unless you like breathing it. Vibration gradually breaks up the fibers creating a fine glass dust that would get puffed out a port with every beat. FYI: My first DIY sub built 20 years ago was based on a high end 15" JBL PA woofer. With some EQ thrown in to compensate for the high FS it sounded great, but after several months on a deep bass diet the cloth surround started ripping and the voice coil former got bent from excess cone travel, all from roughly 1/3 it's rated power. Live and learn :)
Wow! Spinergy knows a bit about audio then!! :-) Nice to have an expert comment on my handiwork. Very interesting post, thanks for that. I agree with your points entirely. This certainly isn't a PA type sub, I use it for my home cinema, and it rarely sees more than 20watts rms from my amp - that sets the windows and the neighbours rattling!!! Your point regarding driving the woofers past their max excursion is very valid, especially in this design where you cannot see them self destruct!! If I build another, then I'll consider your suggestion of different woofers. One good thing about the beta10's is that they are quite cheap, and this design is fairly forgiving of driver quality. Once again, thanks for your post and your interest. All the best, -Dan
Even the smallest of "True" subwoofers do not look that small, even if they are subwoofers, for a box that big they still aren't powerful enough to make use of it, try using a couple of 30 pound subwoofers :P

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