Waterglass - Sodium Silicate - can be made with silica gel and NaOH.
Aluminum - the thicker the better so we get into a good balance. Foil may require "additions" until the reactions stop.
Aluminum Silicate - the reaction product of waterglass an aluminum... speeds the whole process along, paint your aluminum with already reacted silicate to cut down on conditioning time. Such a pretty blue-grey
Aluminum Chloride (AlCl) - the reaction product of the reacted NaCl and the aluminum electrode. another way to speed things along.
Urea - Ice melt is a great source. I'm sure you can think of others. Helps form an ionic liquid electrolyte with the AlCl
Salt (NaCl) - Table salt. I haven't tried iodized.. but I would guess the over potentials might just drive off the iodine.
Borax - Used to wash clothes. I believe it might be acting as a flux in the electrolyte.
Epsom salt - Not 100% sure, but both my batteries use it, and it *seems* to help.