Unfortunately, when I built the model, I did not document the steps that I I took to build it, honestly because I did not know what my steps would be, or how it would turn out at the end. But somehow it turned out great! I will try to describe the build process the best I can.
80 LED's of 3 different colors (protons, neutrons, electrons)
plenty of resistors to complete the LED arrays.
1 board of perfboard
metal rod (for the stand)
2x4 wooden base
Step 1: Choose Your Atom
fyi...[Manganese Uses: Manganese is an important alloying agent. Manganese colors glass an amethyst color and is the coloring agent in natural amethyst. Manganese is an important trace element in nutrition, although exposure to the element is toxic in higher quantities.]
Step 2: Order Your LED's in Bulk!
In case your the kind of person that likes to buy locally, you also will be liking to spend way too much on led's if you go to Radio-Shack!
Radio-shack sells a 2 pack of red 5mm LED's for $1.49!
Mouser sells the LED for 16 cents a piece!
Step 3: Plan the Nucleus
Source Voltage: The voltage of the battery/power supply that you plan on using. I used a 9-volt battery.
Diode Forward Voltage: The specs on the mouser page for the LED I linked to has a diode forward voltage of 1.6V. If you have good specs from your supplier, you'll want to enter the typical forward voltage here. Ideally you'll have something that looks like "3.4V @ 20 mA" If you don't have good specs, this is a list that may help you make decent guesses:
true green 3.3
blue (430 nm) 4.6
Diode Forward Current: If you have good specs from your supplier, you'll want to enter the typical forward current in milliamps here. For 3mm and 5mm LEDs, this is usually 20 mA or close to it. A few special, high-power LEDs exist, but they always come with specs. So if you need to guess, use 20 here. The diode forward current for the LED I linked to from Mouser was 30mA.
Number of LED's in Your Array: The choice is yours. My nucleus used 55 LED's, so I chose 55.
You will probably want to check "View output as [X] wiring diagram; and also [X] help with resistor color codes.
Then click "design my array" and it should output a diagram like the one below, showing what resistors to use, how to have the LED's wired, and how many in a single array.
For this particular example, the wizard thinks that I should use 11 resistors. (18 ohms) with the color code brown-gray-black.
Step 4: Plan the Electron Orbit Rings
So punching those numbers into the array wizard, the 1st layer has 2 e- in a single array with a 220 ohms resistor (red-red-brown).
The next layer has an array of 5 e- with an 18 ohms resistor, (brown-grey-black), and an array of 3 e- with a 150 ohms resistor, (brown-green-brown), for a total of 8 LED's or e- 's.
The third layer has 3 arrays; two with 5 LED's and a 18 ohms resistor, (brown-grey-black), and one array of 3 LED's with at 150 ohms resistor, (brown-green-brown).
The last layer is just like the 1st layer, a single array of 2 LED's with a 220 ohms resistor, (red-red-brown).
Now add the resistors needed from the last two steps to the shopping list, and add a couple spares in case one get's lost.
Step 5: The Nucleus!
The Idea of the nucleus is to have all the LED's (or protons and neutrons) sticking out of the core of the nucleus, to form a ball of LED goodness. The core is where all the wires and resistors will be stored when completed, insulated and held by hot-glue.
Start with the first panel of the core. and start to wire and solder the diagram from the LED array wizard, with the positive end of each array attached to a common +9V source, and the end of the array soldered onto the resistor soldered onto the common ground.
Repeat this process 6 times until all the panels are of the perf board cube are done and connected together. Once wired together, use hot-glue to insulate the connections to prevent from shorting, and to hold the cube together. You also will want your rod or atom holder to be inserted into the core before the hot glue is solid. Be sure to leave the positive and negative power wires hanging out from the cube! You DO NOT want to forget to keep those wires out!
Step 6: The Motherboard!
Next, strip solid-core wire, and solder the strands of arrays of LED's into one big wire for each layer of the electron orbit layer. Solder the resistor side of the strands to the side of the mother board that the ground wire from the nucleus is connected, and the positive side of the strands to the side of the motherboard that the positive wire from the nucleus is connected. You will want to start in the inner most layer of the electron orbit layers, and form circles with the array strands around the nucleus, forming a model similar to the 1st image.
Use hot glue to insulate "intersection points" of the arrays of the layers to prevent shortages.
Solder all the the common positive connections together, and all the common negative or ground connections together.
Step 7: Check-Point!
Step 8: Create the Master Power Cable!
Step 9: The Base
Create one last 3 LED array of one of each of the colors. Solder on the appropriate resistor just like before the the negative end of the array. Put the LED's in the 3 holes made to be the key.
The wiring for the base is quite simple. First, solder the positive lead of the battery to one lead of the switch. Solder the other lead of the switch to the positive end of the base LED array. also solder the positive wire from the power cable to the positive end of the base LED so that all of the positive connections of the base are connected. Then solder the negative lead of the battery to the negative end of the LED array, and the negative wire of the power cable to the negative end of the LED array. That's it! Flick the switch and all the LED's should light up!
Step 10: Labels!
Step 11: Show It Off!
This is my 2nd instructable, (my 1st real instructable,) so be nice! ;) constructive criticism is always welcomed! It is now 2 in the morning as I'm typing up this instructable, if there are confusing instructions or spelling errors, let me know so I can fix them! I'm sure my mind isn't as clear as it could be.