- Adjustable current of 1 mA to 20 mA - Evaluate brightness and efficiency
- Vf (forward voltage drop) measurement - Needed to calculate resistor value
- LED will not be damaged if connected backwards - Voltage is limited to 5 volts
- Power on / open circuit / reverse polarity indicator - Indicates bad or improper connection
Step 1: Parts and Schematic
47 ohm resistor
100 ohm resistor
1 K ohm resistor
1.5 K ohm resistor
2N4401 or similar (2N3904, 2N2222) NPN transistor
Three 1N4148 diodes
Three red LEDs (must be red)
5 K ohm log taper pot
Transistor socket or similar
Two banana jacks
9 Volt battery clip
Knob (for pot)
Step 2: Voltage Reference
Do not trim the leads at the junction of the 1K resistor.
Step 3: Current Adjust
Solder the 1.5 K ohm resistor to the left terminal of the 5 K pot.
Solder the junction of the 1 K ohm resistor and diode to the right terminal of the 5 K pot.
Step 4: Current Source
Solder the emitter lead of the transistor to the 47 ohm resistor.
Step 5: Open Circuit Indicator
Solder the negative (black) wire of the battery clip to the junction of the 47 ohm resistor, 1 K ohm resistor, and diode.
Make a temporary solder connection from the collector of the transistor to the cathode of the LEDs.
Make a temporary solder connection from the 1 K ohm resistor to the anode of the LEDs and the positive (red) battery clip wire.
Connect a 9 volt battery and rotate the 5 K pot from CCW to CW. The LEDs should go from off to maximum brightness.
Measure the voltage a the left and right terminals of the 5 K pot. Reading should be approximately 450 mV left, and 2.1 V right.
Step 6: Enclosure
Install the components and wire up the LEDs and socket.
Solder some wire to the banana jack ring terminals and from one of the ring terminal to the switch. Solder the positive (red) wire from the battery clip to the switch.
Drill holes for the switch and banana jacks.
Connect the wire from the black banana jack to the collector of the transistor. Connect the wire from the red banana jack to the junction of the 1 K resistor and LEDs.
Step 7: Calibration
Mark a 1/2/5 sequence...
0.1 V = 1 mA
0.2 V = 2 mA
0.5 V = 5 mA
1.0 V = 10 mA
2.0 V = 20 mA
Step 8: Usage
A meter can be connected to the banana jacks to measure the forward voltage drop of the LED (Vf).
Vf is different for the various LED colors and materials used to make it.
With 20 mA of current...
Red is usually 1.9 to 2.0 V
Yellow / orange is usually 2.0 to 2.1 V
Green may be 2.2 V or 3.0 V (true-green or ultra-green)
Blue and White are usually 3.0 to 3.5 V - there are many ways the make these.
IR is usually 1.0 to 1.2 V - If the LED doesn't light up and the meter reads 1.0 to 1.5 V, it is probably IR.
Surface mount LED can be tested with leads connected to the banana jacks - they are in parallel with the test socket.