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In this instructable, i'm going to teach you some basics on photography. I will be writing this mainly for digital users, but most things apply to both digital, and film.

Some history

The first camera ever, was the camera obscura. It was the size of a room, and worked like a pin hole camera. Light sensitive paint was put on the opposite wall of the hole, and light would travel through the hole, and expose the paint. The first camera used a far sighted man's glasses lens in the hole.

All cameras have the following things:

Light tight box
Shutter
Aperture
Lens

Step 1: Picking a Camera

Types of Cameras

Point and Shoot (P&S) - This is the type of camera that is often very thin. P&S cameras generally don't have options on them for controlling shutter speed, aperture, ISO, etc. They are fully automatic, and usually have a large LCD screen on the back (digital) for taking a picture.

Advanced P&S - This is the kind of camera you will want to start with. They are small, but resemble DSLRs, they may have a flip up flash, handle, etc. But the main reason we want them, is they they take better quality pictures, and you can control the aperture, shutter speed, and ISO (among other things). The reason they are good to start with, is that they can be fully automatic, but you have room to grow as you get better,

SLRs - SLR stands for Single Lens Reflex, if there is a "D" in front of it, than it means a Digital Single Lens Reflex. SLRs are the cameras that professionals use, they are the ones that have interchangeable lenses. There is no LCD screen for viewing the picture before you take it, rather, you use the view finder. The way it works, is that light goes in through the lens, reflects against a few mirrors, and through a prism, so you can see it through the view finder. When you click the shutter button, the first mirror lifts up, and the CCD image sensor, or frame of film is exposed to the light.

Picking the one for you

*Note* Megapixels are not the way to chose a camera. More megapixels does NOT mean a better picture. A larger image sensor does, but while you are at P&S cameras, they are all generally the same. This is more important when you choose a DSLR.

This is based on you getting a Digital Advanced P&S:

Until you get to SLRs, there isn't a lot you need to worry about when purchasing a camera. First, look at the features. The wider the range of shutter speeds available, the better, along with the range of apertures. Look at how much zoom your camera has as well, if you tend to zoom in a lot, go for one with more zoom. Check out what kind of memory card the camera takes, and how much the cards cost. Ideally, you will get a 1gb card. If the camera takes SD cards, you may want more, in case you ever upgrade to a DSLR that uses SD. Lastly, look at aesthetics, and how comfortable you are holding it.

If you are getting a DSLR, I will mention something about the brands to get. I only recommend Nikon and Canon, and to explain this bias to people, I've invented The iPod Analogy. If you look at mp3 players, you'll notice that the iPod is not the most economic player. Other brands provide cameras that may have more features for your money. The catch is that the iPod is compatible everywhere, any feature associated with music is built to work with an iPod, and not as much other brands. Cameras are the same way, you're much more likely to find the lenses and accessories you want if you have a Nikon or a Canon.

Where to buy

Two very common places to buy cameras are:

Best Buy
BH Photo Video

BH often carries their equipment for much lower prices. Make sure to get a warranty for your camera.

Step 2: Photography Terms

Some terms you will want to learn about cameras:

Aperture: How wide the opening in a lens is. The larger the opening, the more light gets in. The common. Aperture is measured as a fraction, so the lower the number, the wider the hole. Example: f/16 means 1/16...that is a small opening. f/1.8 is 1/1.8...that is a large opening. The way the fractions work, is that the diameter of a f/16 aperture, is 1/16 the measure of the lens's focal length. The basic apertures are:

f/22
16
11
8
5.6
4
2.8
1.8

Bulb: This is a shutter speed on some cameras. What it means, is that if you press and hold the shutter button, it will stay open until you let go. This is useful for night shots.

Cityscape: A photograph of man made things

Depth of field: This is how much can be in focus. With a large depth of field, things that are far away can be in focus, as well as things that are close. With a small depth of field, things have to be relatively close to each other (distance from camera wise) to all be in focus. A larger aperture (smaller number) will give you a smaller depth of field, while a small aperture (large number) will give you a large depth of field. Small depth of fields are good for portraits, while large depth of fields are better for landscapes.

Focal length: Measured in mm, focal lengths are basically how wide angle, or telephoto a lens.

ISO: It stands for International Standards Organization. If you have a high ISO (like 1600), you camera will be more light sensitive, allowing for faster shutter speeds, but you will have more noise in your image. A low ISO (like 200) will force you to use slower shutter speeds, but you will get less noise.

Landscape: A photograph of nature

Noise: It's created by amplifying the signal that your image sensor detects. It's hard to describe what noise looks like, so i'll show you. If you have a lot of noise in an image, a blue surface will look like this:

http://www.dpreview.com/Learn/Articles/Glossary/Digital_Imaging/images/123di_noise_ex_p800_rgb.jpg

noise is the digital equivalent to grain on film. Pictures can sometimes benefit from noise.

Portrait: A Photograph of a person

Reciprocation: This is how shutter speed and aperture relate to each other. My photography teacher put it like this: If you open up, you speed up. If you close down, you have to slow down. Opening and closing relate to aperture, speed up and slow down refer to shutter speed. So, if you want to open your aperture up one stop, you need to speed up one stop, in order to have the same exposure. Why would you want to change the settings, if you'll get the same exposure? Well, you may want to slow down, in order to have a blurrier picture. Or, you may want to open up/close down to affect your depth of field. (See "stop" for more examples on reciprocating)

Shutter Speed: This is how long the image sensor is being exposed to light. The larger/longer the shutter speed, the more light gets in. If you have a long shutter speed, you need to use a tripod, in order to prevent blurs (unless you are trying to get blurs in your shot). Shutter speeds are measured in fractions as well. 2000, or 1/2000 of a second is a fast shutter speed, and requires a larger aperture. 2, or 1/2 a second is a slow shutter speed, and would require a tripod. In order to know how fast a shutter speed you need to hold the camera by hand (and not get a blurry picture) you generally can take your focal length (in mm) and use that as the shutter speed. For example, if you have an 85mm lens, use a shutter speed of at least 85 for a sharp picture. Because 85 isn't a shutter speed, we would go up to 125. The basic shutter speeds are:

1000
500
250
125
60
30
15
8
4
2
1

Stop: Stops are a way to compare shutter speed to aperture. Each shutter speed is a stop, and each aperture is a stop. This way, when you are reciprocating, if you have a shutter speed of 30, and f/16, you know that you will get the same exposure with a shutter speed of 60 and f/11

Telephoto: Basically...zoomed in. It has a smaller angle of view, but you can view things that are farther away.

Wide angle: A focal length that lets light in from a large angle (degrees) so you can see more things (left to right) but you can only view subjects that are closer to you.

Zoom: A lot of people confuse zoom, and telephoto. Zoom lenses are able to go from a wider angle, to telephoto...it has a variable focal length.

Step 3: Lighting

Light is the most important aspect of photography. Without light, there would be no photography.

There are three types of lighting:

Direct: This is achieved when there is only one light source, and it casts sharp, deep shadows in which there are very little/no visible details in the shadows. Direct lighting can be used in portraits when you want someone to look tough.

Direct diffused: This is achieved when the one light source is allowed to bounce against walls, or is diffused through something like silk, or the leaves of a tree. Shadows have some detail in this type of picture.

Fully diffused: This is achieved when light is coming equally from many directions, and there is little shadow in the pictures. Use this kind of lighting when you want a female model to look angelic.

Sometimes people take available light pictures, This is when you just use what light already exists, versus using a flash, or other light source. This often includes sliding glass doors, and windows.

Certain times of the day provide lighting that people go after as well. For example, there are two hours during the day called the "Golden Hour" these are:

1. The hour before sunrise
2. The hour after sunset

It's when the sun isn't directly shining, but there is a golden glow...

You can also utilize the sun's position to create whatever shadows you want.

Using a flash can help when the available light is insufficient, or you want certain parts of your picture to have more light. You can point your flash at a wall or ceiling, so the light light will bounce and diffuse into the direction you want. On camera flashes are often frowned upon, as they will create harsh lighting, and red eye. For an on camera flash, consider getting a diffuser. The Fong Lightsphere is a favorite of many photographers. You can also fashion one for built in cameras, out of whatever you've got laying around...silk can work nicely.

Consider a reflector, to eliminate shadows that a person's face can make. Look at the picture of a baby below, It would be ten times better, If I had had a reflector when I was taking the picture. A reflective sun blocker from a car works well, and is cheap.

Use your lighting to accentuate parts of the pictures that are important to you. Movies are good places to observe lighting, as they control light expertly. Also, just browse through other pictures, and see how they do it,

Step 4: Composition

A picture becomes art when you utilize your angles, and make the viewer wonder. Just taking a snap shot of something isn't really art. You need to explore the image, and see what angles, or lighting makes it interesting. getting low to the ground, or just showing part of something can help make your pictures be more interesting.

A good article on angles

It's very hard to get a good portrait if your subject is centered, so try and offset people when you are taking pictures of them, it hows where your subject is, and more importantly, who it is.

Step 5: Taking Better Pictures

The only way to take better pictures, is to take more of them. Take your camera everywhere, and snap a photo of whatever peaks your interest. Then, you should show it to other people and get their opinions. Forums are a good place to do this.

A friend and I run this website together. It's small, but we have a few very good eyes there, who will help critique your images, and help you with whatever you need. Be careful what forums you get suggestions from. For example, Nikon Cafe is a good website, but I don't like it for sharing pictures. I find that everyone there is too nice, and praises everything you put up. A site like Phodeo will tell you what is wrong with pictures (nicely) and help you to improve them. As a beginner, stay away from sites that praise everything, or it will reinforce habits that aren't so good.

I'm also available to help you with anything you need.

Most importantly...have fun with photography. Take pictures of what you enjoy, and have patience.
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<p>Thanks for this instructable and your time in making it, it is a great help to me to recap some of the stuff i have already read. I like the fact you have kept it short and straight to the point.</p>
Wow!! This is an informative and useful blogg <br>http://www.digitphotoinfo.com
Hi, great advice on how to use my camera properly, I didn't realize there were so many tricks to create better photos. Thanks for the tutorials and inspirational post. <br> <br><a href="http://trickphotographyeffects.com" rel="nofollow">Mark</a>
Hi I have read all of this stuff and i am trying very hard to understand. I know that just practicing wa ith the different speeds and lite settings is the best way to go BUT can you give me some suggestions I have a cannon eos i have a 55- 250 lens and try taking pics at my daughters basket ball game. they come out dark... I know the settings are off can you give me a suggestions to try and fix that<br>
So there are three things you can do to make the pictures come out lighter: decrease the shutter speed, increase the iso and increase the aperture. A flash will also help if you have one. Decreasing the shutter speed won't really work in an environment such as a basketball game where you have running/throwing going on. The slowest you can go without getting much blur is probably 1/150-1/200 and that's still pushing it. Increasing your Iso will give you added noise but is probably worth it. A larger aperture (smaller number) will decrease the depth of field but is also probably worth it. There's no guarantee you can get great photos in a large, dark room like a gym...your camera and lens are limiting factors, but those three adjustments will get you as close as possible.
What model Canon is it? <br>If I know the model, I can help you out with that sports photo challenge.
hi i have Powerhot SX10 its kinda good but i dont know how to use all the feature i m trying to learn. is there any posble to upgradeit like to put a lens on it? thank for the answer
Hello The thing you can do is better its macro capabilities with Vivitar lens, sold by Amazon, You can also get UV and polaroid filters.
&nbsp;The powershot is a point and shoot, so unfortunately, you can not change the lens. It is worth looking into possible filters for it, however.
Dear Weissensteinburg<br><br>I'm sorry, i don't know if anyone already alerted you for this but, the site you provide is not working =/ the Phondeo.<br><br>great instructable, it really inspired me to take better photos and had thought me things i didn't know how it works, thank you so much for that =D<br><br>continue the great work. thank for your time.<br><br>Mastronso<br><br>p.s: just another question, you don't talk about the edition (like photoshop), do you use any of these programs? and if you do, wich one do you think is the best for someone who is starting. because i use photoshop, but i don't know how to work with it :/<br><br>
Hi. Unfortunately Phodeo isn't around anymore, I'll update the instructable accordingly. It's good to hear you've gotten something out of it, though. <br><br>Photoshop is definitely the best program to use, it's always been my favorite. As for working with it, I taught myself how to use it by looking up how to do specific tasks. There are tons of great tutorials out there. For anything abstract or that I otherwise can't find online, I would ask a friend. Slowly you build up a knowledge of what works for what.
OK, thank you again for the tutorial, it helped a lot =D<br><br>and about the photoshop, I'm starting to do somethings in there with the help of youtube. i was asking that thinking that you had one or two tutorials about that. but i will keep looking. thank you again<br><br>cheers,
Thank you so much. Your article inspired me so much to learn more about photography.
Very cool article. Very well done. For what it's worth, I found great videos on www.purephoto.com. I am a former member of photographymentor.com which has been acquired by this purephoto.com site and they have done a pretty good job!
great instructable!!! <br /> did y'all know that the links that are on the last page of it, don't go anywhere?? just wondering.... have a good one!!<br />
&nbsp;Thanks for pointing that out. Phodeo is no longer running, but the link to nikon cafe still works.
is your website still working?
I have a different one now, its more focused on the work that I&nbsp;do shooting school productions though.<br />
hi there thanks for sharing. just wanted to let you know that your website has a broken link =( <br/>
Thanks, which one in particular?
your a great photographer. im surprised to see such good photos with digital, i always considered digital to be lesser than film but this changes my mind.
This is an excellent dslr. i just bought 1 from here <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.squidoo.com/cheap_nikon_cameras">http://www.squidoo.com/cheap_nikon_cameras</a> very economical and robust camera.<br/>
I found this quite interesting...I found that even though im told I am very creative in my work...i notice that its the same basic picture as a lot that ive looked at and not even remember.... This guide is very informative and covered all the basics with some tips.
Its a nice quick lesson ,Thank you
awesome photography guide, once I get my camera I'll use this a lot. thx :) Also you might see me on phodeo.
Good job W'burg, I've never seen this before, I'll have to have a poke around your site some time soon...
Thanks =]<br/><br/>I'm out of commission right now...my camera broke and Nikon has it now...<br/>
I'm still up and running surprisingly despite the last few weeks, however there's not much going on here for a few weeks and the valleys a bit smoggy ruining the best few hours of photography so I'm just working on stop motion... <br/><br/><sup>pah, nikon, I was always for canon, granted the little olympus is a great stand in for some stuff, 3200ISO with minimal grain is impressive...</sup> <br/><br/>What happened anyway? Our 10D has never had a break down and my mates nikon seems infallible, you must be fairly hard on it...<br/>
I'm not sure, something with the mirror. When I took a picture, the mirror stayed up, I got "Err" (weird for nikons, normally there's an error number), and then when I hit the shutter again, the mirror flapped down, up, and down again. Never taking a photo. But it was covered under the warranty, and I just checked...they've already shipped it back.
Our tech cameras do that occasionally, but when you switch the off button it goes to sensor cleaning then it's fine again, one thing I'm jealous of, I don't have magic sensor cleaning, granted its one less thing to go wrong... I'm working on some ideas at the moment, you got me thinking about it when I was out for a smoke, now I just have to play the waiting game with the light, also the clouds shifting out of the way a bit... Any tips for getting a good white balance in extremely strange lighting, around dusk I've been seeing loads of purple and orange at the same time and the camera has trouble understanding it, I've had a little luck with sampling images but it's still a nuisance for some stuff...
Either get a grey card and set it yourself...or shoot in RAW
I'll give setting it myself a go, tried testing on card etc. Maybe RAW would be less effort...
If you have a camera that shoots raw and photoshop (or light room, or aperture, etc), it's definitely going to be easier.
Aye, just reminding me that I need a bigger memory card too but I suppose it's the best bet, they're close to home though...
Memory cards are pretty cheap these days.
I know, it's jsut a case of getting them... One upside to the tech course I'm doing is that I have access to lots of handy bits and pieces like a big shooting area for still life and a proper portrait setup aswell...
i love photography, i have done since i was like 7, and the nikon d-40 is my favourite camera :D
Simply. Amazing.&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;&lt;a rel=&quot;nofollow&quot; href=&quot;http://zovi.deviantart.com/&quot;&gt;My friend Nell&lt;/a&gt; is an amazing photographer, and she imspired me to start myself. I wanna get in some experience before college (plenty of time, I'm only just turning 14 this November) because I don't think Western Hills supports a Photography class.&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;I'm unseasoned, so I wanna know what I should look for in a camera (advanced point-and-shoot, I reckon), some ideal brand names, and possibly a cost quote?&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;BTW: Nice photos, and happy snapping!&lt;br/&gt;&lt;br/&gt;~ Will has spoken. Er, typed.&lt;br/&gt;<br/>
Thanks!<br/><br/>When you're looking for an advanced point and shoot, brand doesn't matter as much, because you won't need brand specific accessories to carry over if you upgrade. I would just look for a brand that is familiar...Nikon, Canon, FujiFilm, and Olympus are all good. Price-wise you're looking at anywhere from $200-$400.<br/><br/>What to look for:<br/><br/><ul class="curly"><li>Optical zoom over digital zoom</li><li>As manual as possible (it will be auto, too. But you want the option of manual)</li><li>A good view finder</li><br/></ul>Just read reviews online, and see what people think about the camera you're looking at. Good luck!<br/>
Mm. I'll also get Nell's opinion on it, but 200 dollazz? Demms. I'm lucky it's gunna be my birthday! Of course, knowing my grandmother, she'll more'n likely give me a good 50 dollars to cut down.
wow i love that picture of the dog you took. The composition is so well done i just love the lighting. The eye-level angle of view definitely does the trick! How'd you get it to look that way and have the colors look they way they did? It looks almost like a HDR with a bit of tonal mapping done to it. But also could not have been post-processed at all!! Do you have a flickr page or some other way for me to see your photography? I just got my new Canon 40D and it is AWESOME! I'm assuming you shoot with the Nikon D40? That camera is definitely a fun camera too. I got to play with my friends for a week when I went on vacation. I'm surprised he trusted me enough to use it! :D
geez i would love that shot as a wallpaper or just to have! any chance you could email that to me? :D Every time i look for photog instructables, I come across this one and it's one of my favorites because your compositions are very well done! bleehhhhhh
Thanks. It was actually shot on film, and the print was scanned. I then desaturated the fence. The film was a few years past the expiration date, so that gave me some funky colors. I have a flickr, but it only has an album from a battle of the bands shoot I did. You can see some other stuff at weissensteinburg.com I use a D50...although if I were to buy one now, I would go straight to the D80. The D40 doesn't support AF-S or AF-I. Seeing as I scanned the original prints, it's a pretty small file (unfortunately, because it's one of my favorites) But i'll see what I can do for you. Thanks again!
cool! you can look at my flickr page (<a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.flickr.com/photos/26529110@N06/">here</a>) if you want, but all I have posted are my first shots with my new 40D. Man that thing is amazing. <br/><br/>and thanks to you too! haha concerts and any staged events are fun to take pictures of just 'cause they have such awesome lighting and colors nice portfolio<br/>
I want a DSLR, but don't have the money. I've been thinking about getting a advanced P&S, but don't know much about them. Can you focus them like SLR's? That's one main reason why I like SLR's. What type of camera do you have?
hey, i have a point and shoot, but the thing is that you can't manually focus it. it just focuses itself =P. I'm not sure, but I'm pretty sure you can't focus it manually. Reason is, the lens retract into the case, and because of that, the lens aren't that big.<br/>
Apparently my post never went through... No point and shoots allow for manual focus. I don't think there are any advanced point and shoots that allow for manual focus. I know there are some that let you use a barrel to manually zoom, though. When you use a camera that allows for manual focus, however, you'll probably find that you wouldn't use it as much as you might think.
My old camera was a Canon A530 and I was able to manually control the focus with that camera. That camera is pretty nice since it's just a P&S, but you can still control a few more aspects of it. I've finally upgraded to a Canon Eos Digital Rebel XT the other day though.

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Bio: I enjoy photography, horticulture and carpentry, and am almost always doing something relating to of those things.
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