Instructables

Line Follower Robot

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Picture of Line Follower Robot
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Bottom View.JPG
I made a line follower robot with PIC16F84A microprocessor equipped with 4 IR sensors. This robot can run on the black and white lines.

 
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Step 1: First Step

Before everything you must know how to make a Printed Circuit Board and how to solder components on it. You also need to know how to program a PIC16F84A IC.
Here are the links to good instructables about making a PCB and Soldering:

Step 2: Things You Need

To make this robot you need the following things:
  • Some copper board
  • Printed circuits
  • Saw
  • Sandpaper
  • Iron
  • Circuit board acid
  • 1mm drill
  • Soldering oil
  • Soldering wire
  • Soldering iron
  • Wire cutter
  • Some wire
  • 2x Plastic wheels
  • 1x Spherical front wheel
  • Glue
Circuit boards components:
  • A 4 AA battery holder
  • U1 = PIC16F84A Microcontroller + Socket
  • U2 = 7805 = 5V Voltage Regulator
  • U3 = LM324 Comparator
  • U4 = L298 Motor Driver + Aluminum Radiator
  • XT = 4MHz Crystal
  • C1 = C2 = 22pF Ceramic Capacitors
  • C3 = 100uF Electrolyte Capacitor
  • C4 = C5 = 100nF Ceramic Capacitors (104)
  • D = 8 x 1N4148 Diodes
  • R1 = 4.7K Resistor
  • R2 = R3 = 10K Resistors
  • R4 = R5 = R6 = R7 = 1K Resistors
  • R8 = 10K Resistor
  • R9 = 1K Resistor
  • R10 = R11 = 47K Resistors
  • R12 = R13 = R14 = R15 = 100ohm Resistors
  • R16 = R17 = R18 = R19 = 10K Resistors
  • RP = LP = MP = FP = 10K Potentiometers
  • L Motor = R Motor = 60rpm MiniMotors with Gearbox (6V)
  • R Sensor = L Sensor = M Sensor = F Sensor = TCRT5000 Infrared Sensors
  • ModeLED = LBLED = RBLED = Small Red LEDs
  • LFLED = RFLED = Small Green LEDs
  • Mode = Left = Right = Small Buttons
  • SW = Toggle Switch = On/Off Switch
  • J = Jumper = A piece of wire
PCB.pdf(595x842) 101 KB
saurabh_958 days ago

sir please send me the circuit diagram

my email id is : saurabh1995@rediffmail.com

thanks in avdance

devilmanred12 days ago

how i can open the (.wmf) file ??

vahid_you2004 (author)  devilmanred8 days ago

wmf (windows metafile) is an image file. you can open it with image viewer or editors. BTW you did not need to open them, they are all in the pdf file too, just print the pdf.

Sir, I just came across this project, and its the best line follower i have seen.
I tried to make it but having some doubts. Can you tell me where to connect the motor terminals, the bottom board terminals or back board terminals? or both?
having trouble . Please help
vahid_you2004 (author)  aneeshprasobhan3 months ago

Both boards.

phenomx905 months ago
dear sir.
do u just change the LED to the DC motor with gearbox?
http://www.instructables.com/files/orig/FMS/1ZXP/GE7LEZ89/FMS1ZXPGE7LEZ89.jpg

and can i use [30:1 Micro Metal Gearmotor] ?..it look like yours..but free-run RPM 440..


thank sir.
aprasad147 months ago
Dear sir please Line Follower Robot .asm and .inc files...

my e-mail - fast.aruna@gmail.com

Sir please reply urgently....
vahid_you2004 (author)  aprasad147 months ago
You can find all files related to the robot program on step 7. There is no inc file. I used "PicBasic Pro" for programming.
aprasad147 months ago
Dear sir, i am school student.When Mode LED is off robot is in default mode working right motor. Not work left motor ??Motor mode and Sensors mode working left motor and right motor . Sir please default mode worked hex file….

my e-mail - fast.aruna@gmail.com

Sir please reply urgently....
vahid_you2004 (author)  aprasad147 months ago
The robot works fine in default mode. No extra hex file needed all the program is that you can find on step 7. I advise you to check your board, sensors, wires, ... then do step 8 again.
thank you sir..
aprasad147 months ago
Dear sir Please Line Follower Robot .asm file.

my e-mail - fast.aruna@gmail.com

Sir please reply urgently..
aprasad149 months ago
sir plz Circut schematic diagram
vahid_you2004 (author)  aprasad149 months ago
I have just a simple (not complete) diagram you can find it in older comments.
rkancharla9 months ago
are outlines of the copper print are also the conducting traces ?
vahid_you2004 (author)  rkancharla9 months ago
No, They are just outlines.
rkancharla10 months ago
i could only get 12v motors here, which supply should be increased ?? 3v or 1.5 v ?? :-/
vahid_you2004 (author)  rkancharla9 months ago
Just connect - to -3V and + to +3V and + terminal on the top board.
rkancharla10 months ago
(removed by author or community request)
vahid_you2004 (author)  rkancharla10 months ago
Yes, No changes to circuit is needed but you need a 12V supply.
mazedm8010 months ago
Great robot.
polkijain10 months ago
good
can i do this with an arduino(avr only)-and without sheilds(motor,etc...)
vahid_you2004 (author)  polkijain10 months ago
Yes, the most important part of this project is its algorithm.
robo1030210 months ago
wow this robot rocks its sooo easy to make!!thanks for posting.
gautamuv1 year ago
i mean in track some object is kept , it should detect and change it's dirrection. for that i
need to add one more sensor in front dirrection . were can i add and how can i change
the program??
vahid_you2004 (author)  gautamuv1 year ago
There is only one pin free on PIC you can connect your sensor to A4 and add you code to the program before "Operate" part and change the value of lmb (left motor backward), lmf (left motor forward), rmb (lright motor backward) and rmf (right motor forward) variables.
gautamuv1 year ago
what should be done to robot so that it should detect obstacle, for this robo? is it possible?
is there any change in programming?
vahid_you2004 (author)  gautamuv1 year ago
As you can see in the path I made, this robot can pass through white or black area by moving forward on a straight line.
ikrizzy1 year ago
can you give me a progam of this using micro c
vahid_you2004 (author)  ikrizzy1 year ago
Converting a program from Basic to C is a simple work and is very good for you to improve your programming skills.
psantos91 year ago
sir i have a question i can't find a TCRT5000 Infrared Sensors in the market what is the replacement to this component thanks and godbless
vahid_you2004 (author)  psantos91 year ago
You can use any thing that is made of one IR transmitter beside one IR receiver, you can also make it yourself (see older comments).
Have a look at a different concept - A wall Following Robot
vahid_you2004 (author)  GeniusDevils1 year ago
Good Idea
heraldbaby1 year ago
is this circuits right...this programme will be compatable ryt? now i just wanna ground the ports?
vahid_you2004 (author)  heraldbaby1 year ago
Yes, thats right and it works fine. You have not to ground the ports.
heraldbaby1 year ago
CAN I USE L293D motor driver.Also can i get a ciricuit diagram please
vahid_you2004 (author)  heraldbaby1 year ago
Yes, You can use any dual (or more) motor driver.
I have not drawn a complete circuit diagram for this robot but you can find a simple symbolic diagram in older comments.
what are its applications????????????????????????
vahid_you2004 (author)  Abhijith(97)1 year ago
In some big factories or stores there were lines on the ground and a machine follows that line and carries things. You can find lot of applications for this robot i.e. transporting passengers in airplane, following colorful lines in hospitals, ...
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