Introduction: Linkit ONE Chiptunes With Buzzer

Picture of Linkit ONE Chiptunes With Buzzer

This instructable will guide you to play the official mario theme using a buzzer and Linkit ONE.

This project does not use the audio jack to play tunes as was done in my last instructable. Instead, it uses one of the digital pins of Linkit ONE connected to a buzzer to play the tunes. The buzzer here acts as a simple speaker. This is made possible by using 'tone' functions and playing with different frequencies.

Step 1: Parts Required

Picture of Parts Required

You will require the following parts for this project:



• Linkit ONE
• Buzzer module
• Lithium battery
• Breadboard
• BC547 transistor
• Jumper wires


Step 2: Connect the Battery

Picture of Connect the Battery

The first step is to connect the battery to linkit one. It is already provided with the linkit one package. You just need to connect it to it's respective socket.

Step 3: Connect the Buzzer

Picture of Connect the Buzzer

Next step is to connect a microbuzzer to linkit one. This buzzer will act as a speaker to play the tunes on linkit one. You can either connect directly or through a transistor for obtaining a louder sound.

Refer the image above for connecting it. The digital pin that I have used is pin 2.

Step 4: Upload Code

Picture of Upload Code

Upload the code given below to your linkit one. The code presented below will play the mario theme tune. The switches should be in SPI, USB and UART positions.

#define NOTE_B0 31
#define NOTE_C1 33
#define NOTE_CS1 35
#define NOTE_D1 37
#define NOTE_DS1 39
#define NOTE_E1 41
#define NOTE_F1 44
#define NOTE_FS1 46
#define NOTE_G1 49
#define NOTE_GS1 52
#define NOTE_A1 55
#define NOTE_AS1 58
#define NOTE_B1 62
#define NOTE_C2 65
#define NOTE_CS2 69
#define NOTE_D2 73
#define NOTE_DS2 78
#define NOTE_E2 82
#define NOTE_F2 87
#define NOTE_FS2 93
#define NOTE_G2 98
#define NOTE_GS2 104
#define NOTE_A2 110
#define NOTE_AS2 117
#define NOTE_B2 123
#define NOTE_C3 131
#define NOTE_CS3 139
#define NOTE_D3 147
#define NOTE_DS3 156
#define NOTE_E3 165
#define NOTE_F3 175
#define NOTE_FS3 185
#define NOTE_G3 196
#define NOTE_GS3 208
#define NOTE_A3 220
#define NOTE_AS3 233
#define NOTE_B3 247
#define NOTE_C4 262
#define NOTE_CS4 277
#define NOTE_D4 294
#define NOTE_DS4 311
#define NOTE_E4 330
#define NOTE_F4 349
#define NOTE_FS4 370
#define NOTE_G4 392
#define NOTE_GS4 415
#define NOTE_A4 440
#define NOTE_AS4 466
#define NOTE_B4 494
#define NOTE_C5 523
#define NOTE_CS5 554
#define NOTE_D5 587
#define NOTE_DS5 622
#define NOTE_E5 659
#define NOTE_F5 698
#define NOTE_FS5 740
#define NOTE_G5 784
#define NOTE_GS5 831
#define NOTE_A5 880
#define NOTE_AS5 932
#define NOTE_B5 988
#define NOTE_C6 1047
#define NOTE_CS6 1109
#define NOTE_D6 1175
#define NOTE_DS6 1245
#define NOTE_E6 1319
#define NOTE_F6 1397
#define NOTE_FS6 1480
#define NOTE_G6 1568
#define NOTE_GS6 1661
#define NOTE_A6 1760
#define NOTE_AS6 1865
#define NOTE_B6 1976
#define NOTE_C7 2093
#define NOTE_CS7 2217
#define NOTE_D7 2349
#define NOTE_DS7 2489
#define NOTE_E7 2637
#define NOTE_F7 2794
#define NOTE_FS7 2960
#define NOTE_G7 3136
#define NOTE_GS7 3322
#define NOTE_A7 3520
#define NOTE_AS7 3729
#define NOTE_B7 3951
#define NOTE_C8 4186
#define NOTE_CS8 4435
#define NOTE_D8 4699
#define NOTE_DS8 4978

#define melodyPin 2
//Mario main theme melody
int melody[] = {
NOTE_E7, NOTE_E7, 0, NOTE_E7,
0, NOTE_C7, NOTE_E7, 0,
NOTE_G7, 0, 0, 0,
NOTE_G6, 0, 0, 0,

NOTE_C7, 0, 0, NOTE_G6,
0, 0, NOTE_E6, 0,
0, NOTE_A6, 0, NOTE_B6,
0, NOTE_AS6, NOTE_A6, 0,

NOTE_G6, NOTE_E7, NOTE_G7,
NOTE_A7, 0, NOTE_F7, NOTE_G7,
0, NOTE_E7, 0, NOTE_C7,
NOTE_D7, NOTE_B6, 0, 0,

NOTE_C7, 0, 0, NOTE_G6,
0, 0, NOTE_E6, 0,
0, NOTE_A6, 0, NOTE_B6,
0, NOTE_AS6, NOTE_A6, 0,

NOTE_G6, NOTE_E7, NOTE_G7,
NOTE_A7, 0, NOTE_F7, NOTE_G7,
0, NOTE_E7, 0, NOTE_C7,
NOTE_D7, NOTE_B6, 0, 0
};
//Mario main them tempo
int tempo[] = {
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,

12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,

9, 9, 9,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,

12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,

9, 9, 9,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 12, 12,
};
//Underworld melody
int underworld_melody[] = {
NOTE_C4, NOTE_C5, NOTE_A3, NOTE_A4,
NOTE_AS3, NOTE_AS4, 0,
0,
NOTE_C4, NOTE_C5, NOTE_A3, NOTE_A4,
NOTE_AS3, NOTE_AS4, 0,
0,
NOTE_F3, NOTE_F4, NOTE_D3, NOTE_D4,
NOTE_DS3, NOTE_DS4, 0,
0,
NOTE_F3, NOTE_F4, NOTE_D3, NOTE_D4,
NOTE_DS3, NOTE_DS4, 0,
0, NOTE_DS4, NOTE_CS4, NOTE_D4,
NOTE_CS4, NOTE_DS4,
NOTE_DS4, NOTE_GS3,
NOTE_G3, NOTE_CS4,
NOTE_C4, NOTE_FS4, NOTE_F4, NOTE_E3, NOTE_AS4, NOTE_A4,
NOTE_GS4, NOTE_DS4, NOTE_B3,
NOTE_AS3, NOTE_A3, NOTE_GS3,
0, 0, 0
};
//Underwolrd tempo
int underworld_tempo[] = {
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 6,
3,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 6,
3,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 6,
3,
12, 12, 12, 12,
12, 12, 6,
6, 18, 18, 18,
6, 6,
6, 6,
6, 6,
18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18,
10, 10, 10,
10, 10, 10,
3, 3, 3
};

void setup(void)
{
pinMode(2, OUTPUT);//buzzer
pinMode(13, OUTPUT);//led indicator when singing a note

}
void loop()
{
//sing the tunes
sing(1);
sing(1);
sing(2);
}
int song = 0;

void sing(int s) {
// iterate over the notes of the melody:
song = s;
if (song == 2) {
Serial.println(" 'Underworld Theme'");
int size = sizeof(underworld_melody) / sizeof(int);
for (int thisNote = 0; thisNote < size; thisNote++) {

// to calculate the note duration, take one second
// divided by the note type.
//e.g. quarter note = 1000 / 4, eighth note = 1000/8, etc.
int noteDuration = 1000 / underworld_tempo[thisNote];

buzz(melodyPin, underworld_melody[thisNote], noteDuration);

// to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them.
// the note's duration + 30% seems to work well:
int pauseBetweenNotes = noteDuration * 1.30;
delay(pauseBetweenNotes);

// stop the tone playing:
buzz(melodyPin, 0, noteDuration);

}

} else {

Serial.println(" 'Mario Theme'");
int size = sizeof(melody) / sizeof(int);
for (int thisNote = 0; thisNote < size; thisNote++) {

// to calculate the note duration, take one second
// divided by the note type.
//e.g. quarter note = 1000 / 4, eighth note = 1000/8, etc.
int noteDuration = 1000 / tempo[thisNote];

buzz(melodyPin, melody[thisNote], noteDuration);

// to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them.
// the note's duration + 30% seems to work well:
int pauseBetweenNotes = noteDuration * 1.30;
delay(pauseBetweenNotes);

// stop the tone playing:
buzz(melodyPin, 0, noteDuration);

}
}
}

void buzz(int targetPin, long frequency, long length) {
digitalWrite(13, HIGH);
long delayValue = 1000000 / frequency / 2; // calculate the delay value between transitions
//// 1 second's worth of microseconds, divided by the frequency, then split in half since
//// there are two phases to each cycle
long numCycles = frequency * length / 1000; // calculate the number of cycles for proper timing
//// multiply frequency, which is really cycles per second, by the number of seconds to
//// get the total number of cycles to produce
for (long i = 0; i < numCycles; i++) { // for the calculated length of time...
digitalWrite(targetPin, HIGH); // write the buzzer pin high to push out the diaphram
delayMicroseconds(delayValue); // wait for the calculated delay value
digitalWrite(targetPin, LOW); // write the buzzer pin low to pull back the diaphram
delayMicroseconds(delayValue); // wait again or the calculated delay value
}
digitalWrite(13, LOW);

}

Step 5: Test

Picture of Test

Finally, test the project by switching it to battery mode. You will hear the mario theme tune which will keep on repeating.

That is the end of this instructable. Thanks for watching!!

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