Introduction: List of Macintosh  Keyboard Shortcuts

Picture of List of Macintosh  Keyboard Shortcuts
I saw Rajiv Priyadarshi's 'ible: List of Windows keyboard shortcuts and as an Apple user myself, I decided that I was going to make one (for Macintosh users) as well. Many of these shortcuts I have never used before, nor was I aware of them, but there are some in here that I find very useful, and I have also discovered new ones to use as well. 

(A large chunk of this information is off of the Apple Inc. website. The paragraphs in quotations are directly quoted/paraphrased from the Apple Inc. website. For the entirety of the list, you can refer to: http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1343, otherwise they are just the product of my trial and error..)



Startup keyboard shortcuts:
"Press the key/key combination until the expected function occurs/appears (ie; hold Option during startup until Startup Manager appears). If a startup function doesn't work and you use a third-party keyboard, connect an Apple keyboard and try again."

Option: Display all bootable volumes (Startup Manager)
Shift: Perform Safe Boot (start up in Safe Mode)
C: Start from bootable media (DVD, CD, USB thumb drive, etc...)
T: Start in FireWire target disk mode
N: Start from NetBoot server
X: Force Mac OS X startup (if non-Mac OS X startup volumes are present)
Command-V: Start in Verbose Mode
Command-S: Start in Single User Mode
.

Finder keyboard shortcuts:

Command-A: Select all items in the front-most window (or desktop if no window is open)
Option-Command-A: Deselect all items
Shift-Command-A: Open the Applications folder
Command-C: Copy selected item/text to the Clipboard
Shift-Command-C: Open the Computer window
Command-D: Duplicate selected item
Shift-Command-D: Open desktop folder
Command-E: Eject
Command-F: Find any matching Spotlight attribute
Shift-Command-F: Find Spotlight file name matches
Option-Command-F: Navigate to the search field in an already-open Spotlight window
Shift-Command-G: Go to Folder
Shift-Command-H: Open the Home folder of the currently logged-in user account
Command-I: Get Info
Option-Command-I: Show Inspector
Control-Command-I: Get Summary Info
Shift-Command-I: Open iDisk
Command-J: Show View Options
Command-K: Connect to Server
Shift-Command-K: Open Network window
Command-L: Make alias of the selected item
Command-M: Minimize window
Option-Command-M: Minimize all windows
Command-N: New window
Shift-Command-N: New folder
Option-Command-N: New Smart Folder
Command-O: Open selected item
Shift-Command-Q: Log Out
Option-Shift-Command-Q: Log Out immediately
Command-R: Show original (of alias)
Command-T: Add to Sidebar
Shift-Command-T: Add to Favorites
Option-Command-T: Hide/Show Toolbar in Finder windows
Shift-Command-U: Open Utilities folder
Command-V: Paste
Command-W: Close window
Option-Command-W: Close all windows
Command-X: Cut
Option-Command-Y: Slideshow (Mac OS X 10.5 or later)
Command-Z: Undo / Redo
Command-1: View as Icon
Command-2: View as List
Command-3: View as Columns
Command-4: View as Cover Flow (Mac OS X 10.5 or later)
Command-, (comma key): Open Finder preferences
Command-` (grave accent key): Cycle through open Finder windows
Command-Shift-?: Open Mac Help
Option-Shift-Command-Esc (hold for three seconds): Force Quit front-most application (Mac OS X 10.5 or later)
Command-[: Back
Command-]: Forward
Command-Up Arrow: Open enclosed folder
Control-Command-Up Arrow: Open enclosed folder in a new window
Command-Down Arrow: Open highlighted item
Command-Tab: Switch application (cycle forward)
Shift-Command-Tab: Switch application (cycle backward)
Command-Delete: Move to Trash
Shift-Command-Delete: Empty Trash
Option-Shift-Command-Delete: Empty Trash without confirmation dialog
Spacebar (or Command-Y): Quick Look (Mac OS X 10.5 or later)
Command key while dragging: Move dragged item to other volume/location (pointer icon changes while key is held)
Option key while dragging: Copy dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held)
Option-Command while dragging: Make alias of dragged item (pointer icon changes while key is held--see this article)


Application and other Mac OS X keyboard commands: 
"Note: Some applications may not support all of the below application key combinations."

Command-Space: Show or hide the Spotlight search field
Control-A: Move to beginning of line/paragraph
Control-B: Move one character backward
Control-D: Delete the character in front of the cursor
Control-E: Move to end of line/paragraph
Control-F: Move one character forward
Control-H: Delete the character behind the cursor
Control-K: Delete from the character in front of the cursor to the end of the line/paragraph
Control-L: Center the cursor/selection in the visible area
Control-N: Move down one line
Control-O: Insert a new line after the cursor
Control-P: Move up one line
Control-T: Transpose the character behind the cursor and the character in front of the cursor
Control-V: Move down one page
Option-Delete: Delete the word that is left of the cursor, as well as any spaces or punctuation after the word
Option-Command-Space: Show the Spotlight search results window
Command-Tab: Move forward to the next most recently used application in a list of open applications
Shift-Command-Tab: Move backward through a list of open applications (sorted by recent use)
Shift-Tab: Navigate through controls in a reverse direction
Control-Tab: Move focus to the next grouping of controls in a dialog or the next table (when Tab moves to the next cell)
Shift-Control-Tab: Move focus to the previous grouping of controls
Command-esc: Open Front Row (if installed)
Option-Eject: Eject from secondary optical media drive (if one is installed)
Control-Eject: Show shutdown dialog
Option-Command-Eject: Put the computer to sleep
Control-Command-Eject: Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes, etc..), then restart the computer
Control Option-Command-Eject: Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes, etc..), then shut down the computer
fn-Delete: Forward Delete (on portable Macs' built-in keyboard)
Control-F1: Toggle full keyboard access on/off**
Control-F2: Move focus to the menu bar**
Control-F3: Move focus to the Dock**
Control-F4: Move focus to the active (or next) window**
Shift-Control-F4: Move focus to the previously active window**
Control-F5: Move focus to the toolbar.**
Control-F6: Move focus to the first (or next) panel**
Shift-Control-F6: Move focus to the previous panel**
Control-F7: Temporarily override the current keyboard access mode in windows and dialogs**
F9: Tile or untile all open windows**
F10: Tile or untile all open windows in the currently active application**
F11: Hide or show all open windows**
F12: Hide or display Dashboard**
Command-` (grave accent): Activate the next open window in the frontmost application
Shift-Command-` (grave accent): Activate the previous open window in the frontmost application
Option-Command-` (grave accent): Move focus to the window drawer
Command- - (minus): Decrease the size of the selected item
Command-{ (open brace): Left-align a selection
Command-} (close brace): Right-align a selection
Command-| (vertical bar): Center-align a selection
Command-: (colon): Display the Spelling window
Command-; (semi-colon): Find misspelled words in the document
Command-, (comma): Open the front application's preferences window (if it supports this keyboard shortcut)
Option-Control-Command-, (comma): Decrease screen contrast
Option-Control-Command-. (period): Increase screen contrast
Command-?: Open the application's help in Help Viewer
Option-Command-/ (forward slash): Turn font smoothing on or off
Shift-Command-= (equals): Increase the size of the selected item
Shift-Command-3: Capture the screen to a file
Shift-Control-Command-3: Capture the screen to the Clipboard
Shift-Command-4: Capture a selection to a file
Shift-Control-Command-4: Capture a selection to the Clipboard
Command-A: Highlight every item in a document or window, or all characters in a text field
Command-B: Boldface the selected text or toggle boldfaced text on and off
Command-C: Copy
Shift-Command-C: Display the Colors window
Option-Command-C: Copy the style of the selected text
Control-Command-C: Copy the formatting settings of the selected item and store on the Clipboard
Option-Command-D: Show or hide the Dock
Command-Control-D: Display the definition of the selected word in the Dictionary application
Command-D: Selects the Desktop folder in Open and Save dialogs (Selects "Don't Save" in dialogs that contain a Don't Save button, in Mac OS X v10.6.8 and earlier)
Command-Delete: Selects "Don't Save" in dialogs that contain a Don't Save button, in OS X Lion
Command-E: Use the selection for a find
Command-F: Open a Find window
Option-Command-F: Move to the search field control
Command-G: Find the next occurrence of the selection
Shift-Command-G: Find the previous occurrence of the selection
Command-H: Hide the windows of the currently running application
Option-Command-H: Hide the windows of all other running applications
Command-I: Italicize the selected text or toggle italic text on or off
Option-Command-I: Display an inspector window
Command-J: Scroll to a selection
Command-M: Minimize the active window to the Dock
Option-Command-M: Minimize all windows of the active application to the Dock
Command-N: Create a new document in the frontmost application
Command-O: Display a dialog for choosing a document to open in the frontmost application
Command-P: Display the Print dialog
Shift-Command-P: Display a dialog for specifying printing parameters (Page Setup)
Command-Q: Quit the frontmost application
Command-S: Save the active document
Shift-Command-S: Display the Save As dialog
Command-T: Display the Fonts window
Option-Command-T: Show or hide a toolbar
Command-U: Underline the selected text or turn underlining on or off
Command-V: Paste
Option-Command-V: Apply the style of one object to the selected object (Paste Style)
Option-Shift-Command-V: Apply the style of the surrounding text to the inserted object (Paste and Match Style)
Control-Command-V: Apply formatting settings to the selected object (Paste Ruler Command)
Command-W: Close the frontmost window
Shift-Command-W: Close a file and its associated windows
Option-Command-W: Close all windows in the application without quitting it
Command-X: Remove the selection and store in the Clipboard
Command-Z: Undo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Undos)
Shift-Command-Z: Redo previous command (some applications allow for multiple Redos)
Control-Right Arrow: Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Left Arrow: Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Down Arrow: Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Control-Up Arrow: Move focus to another value or cell within a view, such as a table
Command-Right Arrow: Move the text insertion point to the end of the current line
Command-Left Arrow: Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the current line
Command-Down Arrow: Move the text insertion point to the end of the document
Command-Up Arrow: Move the text insertion point to the beginning of the document
Shift-Command-Right Arrow: Select text between the insertion point and the end of the current line*
Shift-Command-Left Arrow: Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the current line*
Shift-Right Arrow: Extend text selection one character to the right*
Shift-Left Arrow: Extend text selection one character to the left*
Shift-Command-Up Arrow: Select text between the insertion point and the beginning of the document*
Shift-Command-Down Arrow: Select text between the insertion point and the end of the document*
Shift-Up Arrow: Extend text selection to the line above, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location*
Shift-Down Arrow: Extend text selection to the line below, to the nearest character boundary at the same horizontal location*
Shift-Option-Right Arrow: Extend text selection to the end of the current word, then to the end of the following word if pressed again*
Shift-Option-Left Arrow: Extend text selection to the beginning of the current word, then to the beginning of the following word if pressed again*
Shift-Option-Down Arrow: Extend text selection to the end of the current paragraph, then to the end of the following paragraph if pressed again*
Shift-Option-Up Arrow: Extend text selection to the beginning of the current paragraph, then to the beginning of the following paragraph if pressed again*
Control-Space: Toggle between the current and previous input sources
Option-Control-Space: Toggle through all enabled input sources
Option-Command-esc: Force Quit

* "Note: If no text is selected, the extension begins at the insertion point. If text is selected by dragging, then the extension begins at the selection boundary. Reversing the direction of the selection deselects the appropriate unit."

** (If your computer is set so that the F1, F2, etc... keys are not standard function, you will need to add fn onto these keyboard shortcuts. ie; fn Command-F5: Turn VoiceOver on/off)

Universal Access - VoiceOver keyboard commands
* (If your computer is set so that the F1, F2, etc... keys are not standard function, you will need to add fn onto these keyboard shortcuts. ie; fn Command-F5: Turn VoiceOver on/off)

Command-F5: Turn VoiceOver on/off *
Control Option-F8: Open VoiceOver Utility *
Control Option-F7: Display VoiceOver menu *
Control Option-; (semi-colon): Enable/disable VoiceOver Control Option-lock
Option-Command-8: Turn on Zoom
Option-Command-+: Zoom In
Option-Command- - (minus): Zoom Out
Option-Control-Command-8: Invert/revert the screen colors
Control Option-Command-, (comma): Reduce contrast
Control Option-Command-. (period): Increase contrast


Universal Access - Mouse Keys
"When Mouse Keys is turned on in Universal Access preferences, you can use the keyboard or numeric keypad keys to move the mouse pointer. If your computer doesn't have a numeric keypad, use the Fn (function) key."

8: Move Up
2: Move Down
4: Move Left
6: Move Right
1: Move Diagonally Bottom Left
3: Move Diagonally Bottom Right
7: Move Diagonally Top Left
9: Move Diagonally Top Right
5: Press Mouse Button
0: Hold Mouse Button
. (period on number pad): Release Hold Mouse Button


Character Codes (option codes) (although in Lion, the accent keys can be accessed by holding down the specific key)
(In brackets is the same code with "shift" added)

Option-` (grave accent): ` 
Option-1: ¡ (⁄)
Option-2: ™ (€)
Option-3: £ (‹)
Option-4: ¢ (›)
Option-5: ∞ (fi)
Option-6: § (fl)
Option-7: ¶ (‡)
Option-8: • (°)
Option-9: ª (·)
Option-0: ° ...accessibility instructions on Instructables...
Option- - (minus): Hide formatting bar (—)
Option-= (equals): ≠ (±)
Option-Tab: Deselects
Option-q: œ (Œ)
Option-w: ∑ („)
Option-e: ´ (´)
Option-r: ® (‰)
Option-t: † (ˇ)
Option-y: ¥ (Á)
Option-u: ¨ (¨)
Option-i: ˆ (ˆ)
Option-o: ø (Ø)
Option-p: π (∏)
Option-[ (open bracket): “ (”)
Option-] (close bracket): ‘ (’)
Option-\ (back slash): « (»)
Option-a: å (Å)
Option-s: ß (Í)
Option-d: ∂ (Î)
Option-:f ƒ (Ï)
Option-g: © (˝)
Option-h: ˙ (Ó)
Option-j: ∆ (Ô)
Option-k: ˚ ()
Option-l: ¬ (Ò)
Option-; (semi-colon): â€‹â€‹… (Ú)
Option-' (apostrophe): æ (Æ)
Option-z: Ω (¸)
Option-x: ≈ (˛)
Option-c: ç (Ç)
Option-v: √ (◊)
Option-b: ∫ (ı)
Option-n:˜ (˜)
Option-m: µ (Â)
Option-, (comma): ≤ (¯)
Option-. (period): ≥ (˘)
Option-/ (forward slash): ÷ (¿)



For those of you who just skimmed it or scrolled straight to the bottom without reading, here is a list of the keyboard shortcuts that I, personally, feel are very useful:

Finder keyboard shortcuts:
Command-A: Select all items in the front-most window (or desktop if no window is open)
Command-C: Copy selected item/text to the Clipboard
Command-E: Eject
Shift-Command-G: Go to Folder
Shift-Command-H: Open the Home folder of the currently logged-in user account
Command-I: Get Info
Command-M: Minimize window
Option-Command-M: Minimize all windows
Command-N: New window
Shift-Command-N: New folder
Command-V: Paste
Command-W: Close window
Option-Command-W: Close all windows
Command-X: Cut
Command-Z: Undo / Redo
Command-[: Back
Command-]: Forward
Command-Delete: Move to Trash
Shift-Command-Delete: Empty Trash
Shift-Tab: Navigate through controls in a reverse direction

Application and other Mac OS X keyboard commands:
Option-Command-Eject:
Put the computer to sleep
Control-Command-Eject: Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes, etc..), then restart the computer
Control Option-Command-Eject: Quit all applications (after giving you a chance to save changes, etc..), then shut down the computer
fn-Delete: Forward Delete (on portable Macs' built-in keyboard)
Shift-Command-3: Capture the screen to a file
Shift-Command-4: Capture a selection to a file
Option-Shift-Command-V: Apply the style of the surrounding text to the inserted object (Paste and Match Style)
Command-C:
Copy
Command-V: Paste
Command-E: Use the selection for a find
Command-F: Open a Find window
Command-B: Boldface the selected text or toggle boldfaced text on/off
Command-I: Italicize the selected text or toggle italic text on/off
Command-U: Underline the selected text or turn underlining on/off

MY MOST IMPORTANT KEYBOARD SHORTCUT: 
Option-Command-esc: Force Quit


Some of these shortcuts may or may not work on different versions of the software, and many of these are not compatible with Intel-based Macs. I hope you have a successful journey on your way to limiting your time "wasted" on silly things like manually opening your Internet browser of choice... pffttt.

Alrighty, thanks for visiting my Instructable. Come again!
Also, if you liked it, you could vote for me in the "Electronic Tips and Tricks Contest".
Thanks again!
-Me

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