"DIY - THE EXCELLENT LINE TRACER ROBOT WITHOUT MICROCONTROLLER"

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Introduction: "DIY - THE EXCELLENT LINE TRACER ROBOT WITHOUT MICROCONTROLLER"

Hi
I am Ajinkya Dixit
this is my first robotics project - " THE LINE TRACER ROBOT WITHOUT MICROCONTROLLER "
These robot contains no any kind of microcontrollers , instead it uses only integrated circuit (IC) and some other electronics parts.

There is a great problem with me about microcontroller's, because of my trade (INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY). I have no any knowledge about microcontroller's but , electronics and robotics is my hobby and strength also. So to making these line follower robot i have struggled from last two months. Finally it's made!!!! . I have made these robot without anyones help and lessions about electronics and robotics.

So r u interested in making these robot ??? then see the following steps.

Step 1: COMPONENTS U WILL NEED:

For this project u will need following components :
1. IC - L2963D The motor driver IC .x 1
2. LDR'S (Light Depending Resistors) x 2
3. White LED's x 2
4. Resistors 10 k x 4
Resistors 100 Ohm x 2
5. POT'S 20k x 2
6. Generel PCB'S.
7. 7-Segment displays (i have used 5 displays. It depends on what u want to display.)
8. 9 v Battery x 2
9. 3 or 6 v DC Geared Motors x 2 .
10. Some other miscellineous parts.

Also the main circuit board is my homemade PCB made out of generel purpose pcb.
to make this u will need:
1.A small PCB(Single sided).
2.Laser printer(only laser printer is better) & OHP sheet.
3.FeCl3(Ferrus Cloride) PCB Etching Solution.
4.Cloths iron.

Gathered Parts Together?
Ready?
ok.......
See next step....

Step 2: SCHEMATIC:

Now Look carefully following circuit Diagram & try out the circuit on bread board first.
if it is working properly go to making its PCB version. the PCB for the project is homemade PCB that is
shown here.
These Line Tracer Robot uses the main part which is the populer IC chip -IC L293D the motor driver IC / H - BRIDGE IC!!!
The schematic shows the pin - to - pin connections of L293D!!!

I have implemented these circuit on the breadboard first for confirmation and after that the final ckt is implemented on PCB.

Although these schematic shows the use of optoisolators , i have used the simple LED's (white) & LDR's as sensors.
You can use photodiodes as an alternative to LDR's but it requires change in it's sensing frequency due to difference between rate of light absorbed by it in day and night. (CNY70 IS VERY BEST OVER ALL OF THESE).

The value of POT depends on u r choice but in between range of sensors frequency.

To making LINE FOLLOWER ROBOTS i have tried lots variety of motors like toy motor, DVD player motor, tape recorder motor,
and so on. But finally i understood that these motors does not work for these robot.
Hence I have used the 12 v DC Geared motors having 150 RPM.
U can use 3 or 6 v DC Geared motors also.

NOTE: The PCB & whole description is now easily available online. Please go thru the link :http://electronicsforu.com/diy/hardware-diy/simple-line-following-robot

Step 3: Main Part - Making the Circuit !!!

I have implemented these circuit on the breadboard first for confirmation and after that the final ckt is implemented on PCB.
The PCB is also made by me at home. It's easy to make at home. Also it's drilled by my small but powerfull homemade drill
machine.(See photos.)

If u are beginner to pcb making then don't worry!! u can make the PCB's at home. To making PCB's see articles on (https://www.instructables.com).

The drill machine is made by me at home after use of lots of different types of motors.......finally i got the highest  torque motor from scrap!!!!!!

u can see the drill in photos.

Step 4: Making "The Eyes" - Sensors

Although these schematic shows the use of optoisolators , i have used the simple LED's (white) & LDR's as sensors.
You can use photodiodes as an alternative to LDR's but it requires change in it's sensing frequency due to difference between rate
of light absorbed by it in day and night. ( IR Reflector- CNY70 IS VERY BEST OVER ALL OF THESE).

The very important part in case of sensors is the distance between two sensors. Refer the following photo which shows the positioning and fixing of sensors.

The value of POT depends on u r choice but in between range of sensors frequency. Generelly 20 k works better!!!

Another important thing is the gap between your track and sensors. You have to set it until the LDR senses the light and rotates
 the motor. It also depends on value of your POT used and currently setted ... % resistence of that POT.

Step 5: TRACK

The trsck is the simple black line having turns on white surface. Remember that these robot works on the track of only black color on only white surface and one another important point is the track must have the width less than the distance between two sensors.
(See image)

I have made the track by using the black electrical tape on white paper. Because to sensing the light and therefore rotating the motor
the complete white surface is necessery. So if u have tiles of any color rather than white then u will require to make the path/track
on white surface.

Step 6: FINISHED!!!!

To making  LINE FOLLOWER ROBOTS i have tried lots variety of motors like toy motor, DVD player motor, tape recorder motor,
 and so on. But finally i understood that these motors does not work for these robot.
 Hence I have used the 12 v DC Geared motors having 150 RPM.(http://www.solarbotics.com)

As mentioned above that i have no any knowledge about microcontroller , also currently it is not possible for me to use LCD displays.
So instead of it i have used 7-segment display (just for fun.).

To making the body i tried first using 2 old CD's but the size of my PCB is greater than of CD's So instead i used hard sheets
of old packaging boxes.

The caster wheel at the tail of robot is just used for weight balancing.

Use of 9v PP3 batteries is better than using 6v or 4.5v AA type batteries.

My special thanx to my parents for their support for these project and Mr. T.K.Hareendran of EFY for suggestion about sensors
and thanx to my junior friend Pranjal Joshi for his co-operation and interest in learning something about these project from me.


I hope you will like my project and you will try to construct the same......if yes then ALL THE BEST !!!!

pls comment and rate these article.....!!!!!


THANK YOU!!!

Step 7: LET'S SEE THESE VIDEOS:

Guys must See These videos.........

i have uploaded only one video here.(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=06UsJOJoMG0&feature=share)
I have one another video but i cant upload her due to some technical problem so i am giving direct link on youtube here: must see these video also.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gewYLc_qYbw&feature=share

This project is selected by popular electronics magazine "Electronics For You (EFY)" for publish in their magazine and they have published this project in their July 2012's issue. If you want to see this article then please see the PDF attached below. U will find the same project with all details and new improved PCB layout.

Thank you!!!!!!!

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    56 Discussions

    Hi I am a student of electronics I am doing this similar project for our 12th boards mini project would you please mail me the scamatic diagram of the circuit board
    My email is
    tapanpatil08@gmail.com

    We are also making the similar project. upon connecting the battery, only one LED works. by reversing the battery polarity, the other another LED works. Can you suggest, how should i fix this issue.

    1 reply

    It seems something wrong in your circuit. Which PCB are you using...??? Have you designed your PCB or soldered on perfboard...???

    hi actually my sensor circuit is not working.i m using ldr and 20k preset and white led as a sensor.how can i resolve this plz suggest any idea.

    I have set those segments ON which i wanted to GLOW. Remaining are set OFF.

    hii ajinkya.. i am working on this same type of project .... i have question about seven segment, which type of seven segment we have to use? either common anode or common cathode type ?

    Hello, i am new about electronics and i have tried to make this robot..i used LED's and LDR's for the sensor.. the problem is my sensor not working very well..i'm not using the POT to the circuit because i can't see your POT in your circuit..where u connect the POT? can u send me the schematic with the POT connection in your circuit? my email: beekay1308@hotmail.com...thanks

    hey ajinkya i m an indian too and i loved ur project
    may i know from where u buy these parts and if u live in mumbai then it is very good for me

    4 replies

    Hi Pranav,
    Thanx to being my follower and interest in my this project.
    I am from kolhapur, which is not so far from Mumbai. I think u know about it.
    U can get all this parts from the electronics shops at Lamington road , Airoli , Mumbai. I got it from electronics hobby shops in my city. May i know your surname???
    If you are on facebook then connect with me on it. Also if you are reader of EFY magazine , then see this month's (July 2012) issue. U will get my this project in it too.

    my surname is jain but i not a jain an too buy parts from lamingtan road but from which shop i ll get parts for making a custom pcb and my username is Pranav r jain on fb and never heard of EFY magazine plz check my projects too

    okk...... i will tell u shops. Although i am from kolhapur , i know such shops in mumbai too...!!!

    see:
    GALA Electronics.
    20,Kalpana Building,1st floor,357,Lamington Road,opp police station,
    mumbai ,400 007. Contact: 23863549 , 23823552

    NEX Robotics Pvt Ltd.
    Office No. 1,
    Ridhhi - Sidhhi Heights, Plot No. 59,
    Near Euro School, Sector 19,
    Airoli, Navi Mumbai 400 708,
    Maharashtra, INDIA

    Hi Ajinkya,

    Found your project very good. I am a software professional, work on .Net. I am completely new to electronics and started my hands with Arduino. Found your instructables while looking for line robot. Just to let you know, as a matter of fact, while looking for parts I have been to both the places you have mentioned above. Nex is close to my house and Gala I have just been yesterday to buy a HC-05, which I got from Mac-Net their child company ;-)

    Nitin Walawalkar

    My project is to create a mobile robot that reaches destination and if any obstacle come s in between it will avoid it,for that it compares image pixel by pixel
    Does i require Micro controller for this project?
    Please do reply

    1 reply

    Your idea is really awesome. If you are going to compare image pixel by pixel, of course you will need to use image processing. So you must need a microcontroller. If you don't want image processing, then you can use the above circuit with only replacing of line sensor to obstacle sensor and few other changes.

    at my city there is no one selling 74LS04,what should i use?