Instructables

"DIY - THE EXCELLENT LINE TRACER ROBOT WITHOUT MICROCONTROLLER"

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Hi
I am Ajinkya Dixit 
this is my first robotics project - " THE LINE TRACER ROBOT WITHOUT MICROCONTROLLER "
These robot contains no any kind of microcontrollers , instead it uses only integrated circuit (IC) and some other electronics parts.


There is a great problem with me about microcontroller's, because of my trade (INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY).  I have no any knowledge about  microcontroller's but , electronics and robotics is my hobby and strength also. So to making these line follower robot  i have struggled from last two months. Finally it's made!!!! . I have made these robot without anyones help and lessions about     electronics and robotics.
 
So r u interested in making these robot ??? then see the following steps.
 
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Step 1: COMPONENTS U WILL NEED:

For this project u will need following components :
1. IC - L2963D The motor driver IC .x  1
2. LDR'S (Light Depending Resistors) x 2
3. White LED's x 2
4. Resistors 10 k x  4
    Resistors 100 Ohm x 2
5. POT'S  20k x 2
6. Generel PCB'S.
7. 7-Segment displays (i have used 5 displays. It depends on what u want to display.)
8. 9 v Battery x 2
9. 3 or 6 v DC Geared Motors x 2 .
10. Some other miscellineous parts.

Also the main circuit board is my homemade PCB made out of generel purpose pcb.
to make this u will need:
1.A small PCB(Single sided).
2.Laser printer(only laser printer is better) & OHP sheet.
3.FeCl3(Ferrus Cloride) PCB Etching Solution.
4.Cloths iron.

Gathered Parts Together?
Ready?
ok.......
See next step....
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bkay hbo6 months ago

Hello, i am new about electronics and i have tried to make this robot..i used LED's and LDR's for the sensor.. the problem is my sensor not working very well..i'm not using the POT to the circuit because i can't see your POT in your circuit..where u connect the POT? can u send me the schematic with the POT connection in your circuit? my email: beekay1308@hotmail.com...thanks

hey ajinkya i m an indian too and i loved ur project
may i know from where u buy these parts and if u live in mumbai then it is very good for me
ajinkyadixit (author)  Pranavthegreat2 years ago
Hi Pranav,
Thanx to being my follower and interest in my this project.
I am from kolhapur, which is not so far from Mumbai. I think u know about it.
U can get all this parts from the electronics shops at Lamington road , Airoli , Mumbai. I got it from electronics hobby shops in my city. May i know your surname???
If you are on facebook then connect with me on it. Also if you are reader of EFY magazine , then see this month's (July 2012) issue. U will get my this project in it too.
my surname is jain but i not a jain an too buy parts from lamingtan road but from which shop i ll get parts for making a custom pcb and my username is Pranav r jain on fb and never heard of EFY magazine plz check my projects too
ajinkyadixit (author)  Pranavthegreat2 years ago
okk...... i will tell u shops. Although i am from kolhapur , i know such shops in mumbai too...!!!

see:
GALA Electronics.
20,Kalpana Building,1st floor,357,Lamington Road,opp police station,
mumbai ,400 007. Contact: 23863549 , 23823552

NEX Robotics Pvt Ltd.
Office No. 1,
Ridhhi - Sidhhi Heights, Plot No. 59,
Near Euro School, Sector 19,
Airoli, Navi Mumbai 400 708,
Maharashtra, INDIA

Hi Ajinkya,

Found your project very good. I am a software professional, work on .Net. I am completely new to electronics and started my hands with Arduino. Found your instructables while looking for line robot. Just to let you know, as a matter of fact, while looking for parts I have been to both the places you have mentioned above. Nex is close to my house and Gala I have just been yesterday to buy a HC-05, which I got from Mac-Net their child company ;-)

Nitin Walawalkar

Madhuriruparel12 months ago
My project is to create a mobile robot that reaches destination and if any obstacle come s in between it will avoid it,for that it compares image pixel by pixel
Does i require Micro controller for this project?
Please do reply
ajinkyadixit (author)  Madhuriruparel12 months ago
Your idea is really awesome. If you are going to compare image pixel by pixel, of course you will need to use image processing. So you must need a microcontroller. If you don't want image processing, then you can use the above circuit with only replacing of line sensor to obstacle sensor and few other changes.
al 011 year ago
at my city there is no one selling 74LS04,what should i use?
ajinkyadixit (author)  al 011 year ago
The 74LS04 is not gate and it is needed only if u want to make it capable of following white line. If u dont want white line follower, then u can omit that IC. Else no alternate to that IC.
endrytama1 year ago
can i replace the DC motor with Servo motor ?
if yes will the layout and component different from the list u mention above..

Thanks in advance
ajinkyadixit (author) 1 year ago
I have sent you the mail. Also visit my blog for other ideas.
www.ajinkyadexterslaboratory.blogspot.in

zankar1 year ago
"be nice"
I am working on line follower but i have no detail about this project so please can you send me full circuit diagram and programming of line follower o dhruv.vyas3690@gmail.com.
hmnt.sngh1 year ago
VERY NICE ARTICLE!!!
Hey!!!
Nice 'ible...
Tx for sharing...
Your project is printed in the July 2012 issue of EFY where you had used the TCRT5000L sensor, is it worth using it(sensor) or I can get the same results by using normal white LED and LDR????
And what 'bout the IC 7805????
Plz upload the pcb files....
ajinkyadixit (author)  apoorveinstein1 year ago
@ apoorva visit my blog : http://ajinkyadexterslaboratory.blogspot.in/

Open LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT post

Download the the first attachment from the post.

U will get an EFY article in which my PCB layout is published.

The problem in uploading pcb files is, i am using the "circuit wizard" for making the pcb's....... so this s/w is not used everywhere........

If u have circuit wizard then i will upload ....... sure...... But before get a look on my blog an the attached EFY article.

Thank You....!!!!

Waiting for reply / queries....
ajinkyadixit (author)  apoorveinstein2 years ago
Thanx apoorveinstein....... As you seen my article seen in EFY.

Actually i have used the simple LDR and LED's in my robot. But this website is standard and international website. So i just mentioned the TCRT5000L in robot.
U can use CNY70 too. I have used it also. There is no difference between TCRT and CNY70. U can also get the better result with the use of LDR and LED.

Now about 7805. It is the voltage regulator to provide only 5V by taking up to 12V as input voltage. Generally any IC needs up to 5V for operating. The L293D can work on 12V too. But it heats too much and also as the motor supply voltage is 12V,the battery gets discharged very fast. So i have used it to provide 5V for IC's.

Prefer the circuit published in EFY. That circuit is improved and is of both white and black line follower.
boomg462 years ago
Dear Ajinkya,
may i know the cost of this robot? it will be pleasure to know. Thank you.
ajinkyadixit (author)  boomg462 years ago
Dear Boomg,
This is my first robotic project, so i used all new parts like motors. So i spent $10 (500 INR). If u want to make it from scratch i.e. if u already have its specific parts , then u will have to spent less than $5(less than 25INR)

Thank you
i really interested to making this robot because it not using the microcontroller. otherwise, the cost is so cheap. but, i want to know, how to use the optoisolator. and that device is so hard to find.

thank you
ajinkyadixit (author)  boomg462 years ago
The opto isolator is easily available. Use CNY70 which is one of the market available optoisolators. See the New schematic and PDF given here in next steps.

Thank You
i mean if we use CNY70 what will be its connections

thanks

waiting for your reply.
by the way i like your project
can you plz send me the final schematic

i mean schematic whickh uses the ldr and led or cny70 as sensors

my email is farazshahid51@yahoo.com
thnxx for ur help if i hav any problem i send u message but my exams are going to start so i ll be busy
what should i call that plastic thing ??? and can i get ferric powder in gala or visha stores???
ajinkyadixit (author)  Pranavthegreat2 years ago
The name of that plastic sheet is acrylic sheet...... u can find it at any shops where the vehicle number plates are made. And u can get the ferric powder at gala.
see on ur site u demonstrate ur drill by making a hole in plastic sheet so from where can i get that sheet and how to use that ferric powder ??? because most pcb projects are using the liquid one
ajinkyadixit (author)  Pranavthegreat2 years ago
no matter..... u can get it any stationery too....... now about use of ferric powder, U have to add the some amount of powder into water by the 1:1 ratio...... more powder will work....... wear gloves during this(first time only..... once u imagine then gloves are not necessery)....... if u want to use solution then u can.
And also in ur mini drill u used a plastic sheet from where u hav bought that from
ajinkyadixit (author)  Pranavthegreat2 years ago
Which plastic sheet dude????
hey i also buy parts from the opposite shop visha electronics and from vega robotics but from where i can get the copper pcb and other parts for making the custom pcb and i prefer u should use fritzing.org for making pcb
ajinkyadixit (author)  Pranavthegreat2 years ago
U can get Copper clad board and Ferric Powder(NOT THE SOLUTION) for etching PCB's from vega robotics. And i am using the "Circuit Wizard " for making the PCB's
Dear Ajinkya,

You have mentioned two LDRs and two LEDs as sensors. But in ckt diagram, you have shown a photo transistor. More over you have named it as ITR20001/T, which consists of an infrared emitting diode and an NPN silicon phototransistor assembly. Could you please explain that?
ajinkyadixit (author)  manishkr.iitg2 years ago
yes u are right.... i know that i have shown Optoisolator here. In such application the optoisolator works best than reguler LDR or photo transistor/IR receiever. But this optoisolator is not available everywhere in India and is not so cheap. It's unavailable in my city also. So i used LDR's and after that i have replaced LDR and LED's with another optoisolator named "CNY-70" which is superb over LDR's.

PLEASE READ ALL THE STEPS. I HAVE ALREADY MENTIONED ALTERNATIVE OF LDR AND LED. I THINK U HASNT READ IT. PLEASE READ IT FIRST AND THEN ASK ANY QUERY.I WILL EXPLAIN EVERYTHING. DONT SEE IMAGES ONLY, ALSO READ IT'S DESCRIPTION TOO.

Any way thanx for interest in this my robot. waiting for reply/query. U are always welcome....!!!! :) :)
ajinkyadixit (author) 2 years ago
thanx rahulbiradar............
pls tell me actually what do u want ???

i will upload the report after that........ :)
please attach the report file an working discription of each circuit and ic .....good project.....!!!!!!!!
meshgheru2 years ago
Ok. I download the schematic but on your PCB I observe 2 trimpot which doesnt appear in schematic.
ajinkyadixit (author)  meshgheru2 years ago
yes actually this trimmerpots are added after first test of robot and it's necessery for ldr's( i have used ldr's) so i have added it in main ckt.
if u r using sensor like CNY70 then i think its not necessery to trimmerpot.just try it and report me.If u r using ldr then u will require that trimmerpots.

once u connect trimmerpot in u r ckt, u have to adjust it's value to control sensitivity of sensor until ur motor stops INSTANTLY when sensor sees the black line.

if u want to use trimmerpot then it's easy- go to following link if u r facebook user---
https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=283000985093596&set=o.177778408912651&type=1&permPage=1
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