Introduction: MANUAL / AUTONOMOUS CONTROL ROBOT (USING SENSOR FUSION TECHNIQUE)

DTMF or Dual Tone Multiple Frequency is nifty little way of controlling machines with your cellphone. This instructable shows you, gentle reader how to make a cheaper than dirt DTMF controlled robot that can also function AUTONOMOUSLY, yeh! that's right AUTONOMOUSLY when things get tight.

The project is built around the Oh-so-versatile Arduino UNO (Oh arduino is their anything you can't do!!!!!!). The programming is straight forward but make sure everything is on hand before you start tinkering. The entire project can be slapped together for less than 50$ and can bring hours of mindless fun to you and the family pet.

ALLOW ME TO EXPLAIN MY PROJECT:------

As the title suggest this robot is capable of working both in autonomous and manual mode, I will explain the working of the robot in both the modes now:

AUTONOMOUS MODE :-
In this project I have implemented the "SENSOR FUSION" technique which sound "HIGH TECHIE TECHIE" but is actually a simple technique of combining the input data of more than one (same or different types) sensor to analyze the environment. This increases the sensing ability of the system and also allows to formulate more precise results (or counter measures in this case). In this project I have used one ULTRA SONIC sensor for finding the distance of the obstacle from the robot and the two I.R. sensor (one on each side) to prevent edge collision.

Suppose the robot is heading towards an obstacle. When it is at a specified distance(specified in the code) from the object say 6cm (calculated by the ultrasonic sensor) it will either turn left or right. This decision is made by detecting which of the 2 sides are vacant (i.e doesn't have any other obstacle or won't lead to collision with some other obstacle). That's where the I.R. sensors come in play, they check the left and right side. If suppose both the sides are vacant then you can choose where your robot should step it's foot by specifying it in the code.

MANUAL MODE:-

In manual mode the robot can be controlled using mobile phone, one attached to the robot and another phone can be used to call on the phone connected to the robot. When you press a key on the caller's phone a signal will generate, the called phone will transmit the same signal to the DTMF MODULE which will convert it into a 4 bit BCD code (learn more about DTMF on the " INTERNET ")

THE ROBOT CAN BE SWITCHED BETWEEN THESE 2 MODES JUST BY PRESSING A KEY OFF THE PHONE WHICH WILL BE EXPLAINED LATER.


SORRY FOR NOT UPLOADING ANY VIDEO AS YOUTUBE IS BANNED IN OUR COLLEGE AND THE INSTRUCTABLE DOES NOT HAVE A VIDEO UPLOADING FEATURE FOR NOW.

Step 1: STUFF YOU NEED

1:- DTMF Module (http://www.ebay.in/itm/like/20119037796).

2:- ARDUINO UNO.

3:- JUMPER WIRES (MALE TO FEMALE and MALE TO MALE).

4:- PING ULTRASONIC SENSOR (YOU CAN USE HC-SR04 SENSOR TOO BECAUSE IT IS CHEAPER BUT YOU HAVE TO MODIFY THE CODE WHICH I WILL EXPLAIN IN THE CODE SECTION).

5:- 2 I.R. SENSOR (http://www.amazon.in/ROBOSOFT-SYSTEMS-Single-Sensor-Module/dp/B00U3LKGTG/ref=sr_1_cc_3?s=aps&ie=UTF8&qid=1427820514&sr=1-3-catcorr&keywords=ir+sensor+module)

6:- 2 SMALL BREAD BOARDS.

7:- L293D MOTOR DRIVER(http://www.amazon.in/L293D-Push-Pull-Four-Channel-...) YOU CAN ALSO USE THE L293D MODULE AVAILABLE AT(http://www.ebay.in/itm/like/271552019152)

8:- 2 WHEELS AND 2 STEPPER MOTORS WITH THE GEARBOX(AVAILABLE ON AMAZON) IF YOU USE THE MOTORS WITHOUT THE GEAR BOX THEN THEY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO PROVIDE ENOUGH TORQUE TO MOVE THE WHEELS WHEN THE ROBOT IS PLACED ON GROUND. "PERSONAL EXPERIENCE!!!!!!"

9:- ONE MOBILE PHONE WITH 3.5mm JACK SUPPORT, AND ONE FOR CALLING.

10:- SMALL BOX.

11:- DOUBLE SIDED TAPE.

12:- 2 Batteries (Try to use duracell). You can use a 5v charger for testing.

Step 2: GETTING STARTED: CONNECTING DTMF With Arduino

For those of you who are not familiar with DTMF, I have given a link below, please do check.

http://www.mediacollege.com/audio/tone/dtmf.html Connect There are 4 pins on one side of the DTMF controller marked as D0, D1, D2, D3, connect these pins to the pin 3, 4, 5 & 6 of Arduino respectively i.e. D0 to pin 3, and so on. We will be drawing power for the DTMF from the Arduino. I will tell you how in the 4th step.

Step 3: SETTING THE L293D

The advantage of using a motor driver and stepper motors is that this arrangement is cheaper compared to using Servo motors.

Connect the pins 4, 5, 12, 13 together using small jumpers. You can make these jumpers using solid core aluminium wires. Connect the pins 1 and 9 together and pins 8 and 16 together. Connect the pin:

ARDUINO <=========> DRIVER

pin 9 <----------------------------> pin 2

pin 10 <--------------------------> pin 7

pin 11 <--------------------------> pin 15

pin 12 <--------------------------> pin 10

Connect the 5V from arduino to the pin 1 through bread board, and GND to the pins 4 , 5, 12, or 13, any one will do.

Step 4: CONNECTING THE SENSORS WITH ARDUINO

The sensor I am using is a PING ultrasonic sensor due to it's high reliability and lower pin count compared to HC-SR04 which is a 4 pin sensor, as it has separate pins for input and output signal, while ping uses the same pin for input and output. Also I got it for free so why to buy another!!!!!!

I will tell you how to modify the code for 4 pin sensor later in the code section. Output means that the sensor module will be excited by the Arduino to fire the ultra sonic pulse, and input means that the reflected wave sensed by the sensor is input to the Arduino. Connect the signal pin to the pin 8 on Arduino. Since we have to use a limited number of power source we will be drawing power from the Arduino;So connect the 5V pin of the sensor to the driver breadboard's 5v supply (FROM THE ARDUINO), and GND to the ground of driver board. If you are using a driver module, make a common 5V take off point and ground connection for these two. Also connect the power supply pin of the DTMF module to the bread board power supply. Similarly connect the output pins of the I.R. sensor to the pin 11 and 12 according to the code.

Step 5: CONNECTING THE 5 BABIES WITH MOTHER

Now connect all the five modules to the Arduino. Also connect the motors and use a 5v charger for testing. If you don't have the charger you can use a 9v battery for the motors. For testing plug the Arduino to your computer.

Don't waste the batteries unnecessarily. I did and it had almost cost me my 1st prize.

Step 6: THE CODE

The coding was a challenge, since the DTMF can generate code for only one digit at a time.

The problem was coding for the manual mode where I had to define a key for switching to manual mode. I will explain with an example:-

void loop()

{

int z = digitalRead(d0);

int y = digitalRead(d1);

int x = digitalRead(d2);

int w = digitalRead(d3);

if((w == LOW)&&(x == LOW)&&(y == LOW)&&(z == HIGH)) i.e. digit 1

if((w == LOW)&&(x == LOW)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == LOW)) i.e. digit 2

The code should work like this :- if 1 is pressed, the robot goes into manual mode and by pressing 2 on the keypad the robot moves forward. But what actually happens is that as I press 2 the robot is no longer in manual mode. WHY??????

The answer is that, the state at the pins of Arduino connected to the DTMF have changed now, i.e. they are no longer 1, because the state information is not stored anywhere (because the state has to change when the robot is switched to autonomous mode and the DTMF also can generate only code for last pressed key and can not store, the code itself).


THE SOLUTION:- The solution was simple, instead of placing a condition for a number, for switching the mode, I had placed it for a digit:-

Example:-

if(w == LOW)

{

if((w == LOW)&&(x == LOW)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == LOW))

{

digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW);

}

if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == LOW)&&(z == HIGH))

{

digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH);

digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH);

}

if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == LOW)&&(z == LOW))

{

digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH);

digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW);

}

if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == LOW))

{

digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH);

digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH);

}

if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == HIGH))

{

digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW);

digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW);

}

}

SINCE 'W' WILL ALWAYS STAY LOW FOR THE ABOVE DIGITS, THE W=0 CONDITION WILL BE TRUE THROUGHOUT.

Step 7: THE CODE :- FOR PING SENSOR

const int serialPeriod = 250; // a period of 250ms = a frequency of 4 Hz
unsigned long timeSerialDelay = 0;

const int UltraloopPeriod = 20; // a period of 20ms = a frequency of 50 Hz unsigned UltraLoopDelay = 0;

const int sensor_1 = 10; // input/output from the sensor_1 const int sensor_2 = 11; const int sensor_3 = 12; int motorL1 = 6; // output for motor driver pin 2 int motorL2 = 7; // output for motor driver pin 7 int motorR1 = 8; // output for motor driver pin 15 int motorR2 = 9; // output for motor driver pin 10 int d0 = 2; // input from DTMF pin D0 int d1 = 3; // input from DTMF pin D1 int d2 = 4; // input from DTMF pin D2 int d3 = 5; // input from DTMF pin D3 int ultrasonicTime; // variable to store time int ultrasonicDistance; // variable to store distance calculated void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // setting serial communication speed pinMode(motorL1, OUTPUT); pinMode(motorL2, OUTPUT); pinMode(motorR1, OUTPUT); pinMode(motorR2, OUTPUT); pinMode(d0, INPUT); pinMode(d1, INPUT); pinMode(d2, INPUT); pinMode(d3, INPUT); }

void loop() { int z = digitalRead(d0); int y = digitalRead(d1); int x = digitalRead(d2); int w = digitalRead(d3); /*----------------------------------------- M A N U A L M O D E ---------------------------------------*/ if(w == LOW) { if((w == LOW)&&(x == LOW)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == LOW)&&(z == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == LOW)&&(z == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } } /*----------------------------------- A U T O N O M O U S M O D E -----------------------------------*/ if(w == HIGH) { viewDistance(); if((millis() - UltraLoopDelay) >= UltraloopPeriod) { readUltrasonicsensor_1(); motorStart(); UltraLoopDelay = millis(); } } } void readUltrasonicsensor_1() // fuction to take sensor_1 data and find distance { pinMode(sensor_1, OUTPUT); digitalWrite(sensor_1, LOW); delay(2); digitalWrite(sensor_1, HIGH); delay(10); digitalWrite(sensor_1, LOW); pinMode(sensor_1, INPUT); ultrasonicTime = pulseIn(sensor_1, HIGH); ultrasonicDistance = (ultrasonicTime/2)/29; //calculation to measure the distance of obstacle from ultrasonic sensor }

void motorStart() //function to drive the motor according to sensed distance { int irsL = digitalRead(sensor_2); //IR left sensor int irsR = digitalRead(sensor_3); //IR right sensor if(ultrasonicDistance > 10) //this part code works to prevent side collisions even { //when there is no obstacle in front of the robot if((irsL == LOW)&&(irsR== LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((irsL == HIGH)&&(irsR == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((irsL == LOW)&&(irsR == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((irsL == HIGH)&&(irsR == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } } if(ultrasonicDistance < 10) //this part of code works when there is some { //obstacle is infront of the robot and also if((irsL == HIGH)&&(irsR == LOW)) //to prevent side collision { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((irsL == LOW)&&(irsR == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((irsL == HIGH)&&(irsR == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((irsL == LOW)&&(irsR == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } } }

/*---------------------------CHECKING THE ULTRSONIC SENSOR-------------------------*/

void viewDistance() //function to view distance on serial monitor { //to check if the ultra sonic sensor code working properly if((millis() - timeSerialDelay) >= serialPeriod) { Serial.print("Distance"); Serial.print(ultrasonicDistance); Serial.print("cm"); Serial.println(); timeSerialDelay = millis(); } }

Step 8: THE CODE :- FOR THE HC-SR04 SENSOR

const int serialPeriod = 250; // a period of 250ms = a frequency of 4 Hz
unsigned long timeSerialDelay = 0;

const int UltraloopPeriod = 20; // a period of 20ms = a frequency of 50 Hz unsigned UltraLoopDelay = 0;

const int sensor_1_in = 10; // input/output from the sensor_1 const int sensor_1_out = 13; const int sensor_2 = 11; const int sensor_3 = 12;

int motorL1 = 6; // output for motor driver pin 2 int motorL2 = 7; // output for motor driver pin 7 int motorR1 = 8; // output for motor driver pin 15 int motorR2 = 9; // output for motor driver pin 10 int d0 = 2; // input from DTMF pin D0 int d1 = 3; // input from DTMF pin D1 int d2 = 4; // input from DTMF pin D2 int d3 = 5; // input from DTMF pin D3 int ultrasonicTime; // variable to store time int ultrasonicDistance; // variable to store distance calculated void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // setting serial communication speed pinMode(motorL1, OUTPUT); pinMode(motorL2, OUTPUT); pinMode(motorR1, OUTPUT); pinMode(motorR2, OUTPUT); pinMode(d0, INPUT); pinMode(d1, INPUT); pinMode(d2, INPUT); pinMode(d3, INPUT); }

void loop() { int z = digitalRead(d0); int y = digitalRead(d1); int x = digitalRead(d2); int w = digitalRead(d3); /*----------------------------------------- M A N U A L M O D E ---------------------------------------*/ if(w == LOW) { if((w == LOW)&&(x == LOW)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == LOW)&&(z == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == LOW)&&(z == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((w == LOW)&&(x == HIGH)&&(y == HIGH)&&(z == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } } /*----------------------------------- A U T O N O M O U S M O D E -----------------------------------*/ if(w == HIGH) { viewDistance(); if((millis() - UltraLoopDelay) >= UltraloopPeriod) { readUltrasonicsensor_1(); motorStart(); UltraLoopDelay = millis(); } } } void readUltrasonicsensor_1() // CHANGED { digitalWrite(sensor_1_out, LOW); delay(2); digitalWrite(sensor_1_out, HIGH); delay(10); digitalWrite(sensor_1_out, LOW); ultrasonicTime = pulseIn(sensor_1_in, HIGH); ultrasonicDistance = (ultrasonicTime/2)/29; //calculation to measure the distance of obstacle from ultrasonic sensor }

void motorStart() //function to drive the motor according to sensed distance { int irsL = digitalRead(sensor_2); //IR left sensor int irsR = digitalRead(sensor_3); //IR right sensor if(ultrasonicDistance > 10) //this part code works to prevent side collisions even { //when there is no obstacle in front of the robot if((irsL == LOW)&&(irsR== LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((irsL == HIGH)&&(irsR == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((irsL == LOW)&&(irsR == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((irsL == HIGH)&&(irsR == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } } if(ultrasonicDistance < 10) //this part of code works when there is some { //obstacle is infront of the robot and also if((irsL == HIGH)&&(irsR == LOW)) //to prevent side collision { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((irsL == LOW)&&(irsR == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR2, LOW); } if((irsL == HIGH)&&(irsR == HIGH)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorL2, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } if((irsL == LOW)&&(irsR == LOW)) { digitalWrite(motorL1, HIGH); digitalWrite(motorL2, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR1, LOW); digitalWrite(motorR2, HIGH); } } }

/*---------------------------CHECKING THE ULTRSONIC SENSOR-------------------------*/

void viewDistance() //function to view distance on serial monitor { //to check if the ultra sonic sensor code working properly if((millis() - timeSerialDelay) >= serialPeriod) { Serial.print("Distance"); Serial.print(ultrasonicDistance); Serial.print("cm"); Serial.println(); timeSerialDelay = millis(); } }

Step 9: PREPARING THE BODY OF THE ROBOT !!!!!!

The hole on the box in 1st image has nothing to do with anything.


1: Take an ordinary Cardboard box drill some holes for the motor shaft with thick body pen.

2: Place the motors using the double sided tape or with any other feasible method you like.

Step 10: In Continuity......

For the sensor you have to make a few adjustments shown above. The only reason for using small jumpers was that the sensor was taking more space than I thought, so I had to place most of the breadboard outside. It's bit complicated to explain but you will understand what's going on when you reach this point in the build.

Any way, you can use other techniques that suit your fancy for placing the sensor on the robot, but what I tried to do was placing all the wires inside, with no wires outside the box. also you can mount the sensor straight if you wish. But make sure the sensor is not too high or else it will not be able to detect objects of smaller height.

Step 11: TESTING......

Place the mother and it's babies in side the box and do a test run WITHOUT WHEELS.

No need to say the DTMF is missing, it's just hanging out.

According to the code I have written:-

2 = forward

5 = backward

4 = left turn

6 = right turn

digits other than 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 will put the robot in Autonomous mode.

Step 12: CLOSING THE HOOD

Now it's time to place everything inside the body close the hood AND......PLAY!!!!!!

ALL THE BEST......

Comments

About This Instructable

2,105views

18favorites

License:

More by ALKATRAZ:MANUAL / AUTONOMOUS CONTROL ROBOT (USING SENSOR FUSION TECHNIQUE) DUAL MODE ROBOT => (AUTONOMOUS / MANUAL CONTROL)AUTONOMOUS OBSTACLE AVOIDER
Add instructable to: