Introduction: Make an Easy Guitar Distortion Pedal (STEP BY STEP!)
So, I decided to make an instructable! this is my 1st one, please feel free to comment on anything and everything. .... pleeaase comment!
Here's the video of how to do it!
Note: Please Read all steps and read them carefully (if youre just starting at this stuff that is!) if you want to make this right! It should be easy if you follow the steps well. This is more of a beginners project, you could still make it otherwise!
If you have tried and tried to make guitar effects pedals and have not succeeded, this instructable is for you! Or if this is your very first one then this is definitely the place for you to be. I have not found one instructable or website that gives clear step by step instructions on how to make guitar effects pedals. I found one quite clear with the instructions, and all the comments helped out too. It just lacked the Step by Step part. This is it: www.instructables.com/id/Very_simple_and_cheap_GuitarBass_distortion_pedal/
I am using the design (schematic) from this one as it is a very simple distortion pedal.
lets get started!
Okay so Amerinidiot1231 was kind enough to create the perf board layout schematic, so that is attached on this page if you would like to refer to it.
Step 1: Important Step: Resistors
Resistors do basically what it sounds like they do! Resistors Resist the amount of current flowing through a circuit. (a circuit is a path of electricity. Basically if you connected a battery to a light you would have one of the simplest circuits possible)
So for example if you made the above circuit by connecting a battery to a light and then added a resistor anywhere in the circuit the light would be less bright than it was before. The amount of resistance in a circuit depends on how much resistance the resistor(s) have. Think of it as a river! the water flowing through the river is the current flowing through the circuit, the larger rocks in the river slow down the water (as the resistors lessen the current). Resistors will look like the resistor in the picture below, they usually will not be any other shape, they slightly vary in size and they will sometimes vary in color other than the creamy color like the one below, I have also posted a picture of a blue one so that you can see what I mean when I say they might vary in color other than the creamy color one below. So now that you know what they look like, you will hopefully not mistake them for anything else!
For windows (not sure if it will work for macintosh or other operating systems)
it is So much easier just use this program to read your resistors: www.mitmaro.ca/oldsite/files/rr.zip
note: this program will not give you any viruses. All you need to do to use it is click on the link above and then click SAVE and save it to your desktop or somewhere else that you will remember it. Once it is saved, click open. Once you have opened it Double-click on resistor reader and then click extract all, then click next, next again, make sure you have selected the checkbox that says "Show extracted files" Click Finish and then a window will pop up with some files double-click on resistor reader! now I will tell you how to use it: (do this when you need to have your resistors read)place the resistor down on your computer desk facing your computer. Place it so the gold band is facing the right side of your screen. Count the number of bands on the resistor. If it is four bands then under resistor type, select four band, if it is five bands select five band. now, start from left to right select the color on the left matching the color on the left of the resistor and so on the band on the right will usually be silver of gold. It is pretty straight foreward I guess.
Now for macs and other systems!
There is this website www.pealefamily.net/tech/resistor/ It only does four bands though I think that is probably all you will be dealing with though. But you need to read the above step for windows users because the one you will be using will be much the same. *READ ABOVE STEP!
So thats step 1!
Oh and one last note: you can combine resistors to make one resistor like lets say you need 22 ohm resistor, you can combine two 11 ohm resistors. and resistors are not directional, so you can put them either way around in the circuit!
Step 2: Important Step: Capacitors
Read this and read the WHOLE THING!
I suggest you use electrolytic capacitors for the circuit. It probably would sound better with ceramic capacitors or some other types but electrolytic capacitors have it written right on the capacitor. Some ceramic capacitors have it written on the capacitor as well but not all of them. there are some pictures below of different types of capacitors.
And also... a very handy website: www.justradios.com/uFnFpF.html
When you take a flash picture, the flash of the camera needs a quick burst of electricity. The capacitor in the camera stores up power from the battery and sort of compresses it and then quickly releases it to the bulb. Unlike batterys capacitors release thier power in bursts of energy once they are charged up (that is why it takes a few seconds for the flash to come on, because the capacitor is filling up with power) batterys release thier power slowly over a long period of time, but capacitors let out quick spurts of energy!
Step 3: Now... the Diodes!
The diodes in a distortion pedal are what make a distortion pedal a distortion pedal! They make the distortion. It is reffered to as diode-clipping distortion. So first you need to pick the type of distortion you want and then pick the diodes that match that sort of sound! here is a chart of what diodes make what sounds:
1N34A-decent, but output is too quiet
1N34A, 1N914-a bit more defined, a bit louder, and, higher output
(2) 1N34A, 1N914-almost a hybrid fuzz/distortion
orange LED-a hybrid distortion/overdrive
For a Metal type distortion I am using two blue LED'S for the diodes! (LED's are light emmiting diodes) but you could also use rectifier diodes for a more harsh sound!
You can probably buy these diodes at your local electronics store, but Before you go buying all this read the whole instructable, I bought mine from the source. If you have a radio shack around, PERFECT get them from there or some other place. Or you can salvage parts by taking old things apart. Old car radios are PERFECT for resistors and capacitors! and they will have a few diodes here and there. The next step is everything you need to know about the diodes! how to connect them etc.
Step 4: Important Step: Diodes!
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_3/chpt_3/1.htmlI will not go into detail with the diodes as you do not really need to know much about them other than what they do, how to connect them and some other stuff.
Diodes are used in circuits to stop electricity from flowing back into the circuit. They only let current through in one direction. The diodes in the distortion pedal are what make the distortion. Diode-clipping distortion is what this called!
There is a certain way to connect diodes. It is pretty straight foreward.
There is always some sort of line on a diode (except for LED's) but on regular diodes there is always a line. Like in the picture below on the left side of the diode is a line.
The schematic symbol for a diode is shown below:
You connect the diode with the line facing the direction the arow is pointing.
Reccomend u read this
More on diodes: http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_3/chpt_3/1.html
Step 5: Important Step: Transistors
Transistors Look like this:
How do you connect a transistor?
this is what a transistor will look like in a schematic:
You probably noticed there are three lines sticking out of the circle.
The one at the top is the collector of the transistor, the one on the bottom is the emitter, and the one on the side is the base.
You can buy transistors from your local electronics store!
Oh and if you have any questions so far just leave a comment on the instructable with ur question!
Step 6: Now... What You Will Need!
You will need:
-any capacitor from the value of 0.1 uf to 100 uf (the lower the value then more bass is cut, so high = lots of bass and low value = less bass)
-a capacitor around 10uf
-a nine volt battery and a nine volt battery clip/holder
-Two resistors around 100 K ohms (NOT 100 OHMS, BUT 100 K ohms!) One of these resistors can be a higher resistance for more gain or a lower resistance for less gain but one of them has to stay around 100 K ohm. And incase I didn't explain this Ohms and K ohms are different. K ohms are kilo ohms and ohms are just ohms, just like metres and kilometres!
-One resistor around 10 K OHM
-One NPN Transistor (any NPN transistor should work)
-Two 1/4'' jacks (mono) just the one with the two little connecting things. like the one in the picture below:
They are just he standard ones you find on guitars etc.
-Two diodes, I reccomend that you don't use LED's because they dont have the line on them so if this is your first pedal or you epicly failed at some before, dont use LED's. So if you dont want to use LED's but you want Metal type Distortion then use rectifier diodes.
Perfboard or if you want to not buy perfboard, then cardboard- for this just get some perfboard, all it is is a plastic type stuff with a whole bunch of holes, it keeps your work tidy. but if you dont wanna buy it, just use regular old cardboard and putt all the components onto that!
A project enclosure.
A soldering Iron!
Solder (thin solder is easier to solder with than thick solder)
How to solder?:
Wire for connecting!
-Food. (for when you get bored and want to give up of course!)
Step 7: Where to Find This Stuff?
If you go down to your local electronics store, they should carry some of this stuff but if not here is how to find some of this!
Where to get an NPN transistor from a household item?
-CFL light bulbs have two NPN transistors in them! You open it by taking a saw and just making a little openingon the joint on the plastic part. take a chisel or something and pry it open. When you have it open the transistors should have each pin labelled one labelled C for collector B for base and E for emitter. Just remember which one is which and what order they are in because they are not always in order how it says it in the schematic. So just remember which is which so you can match it up to the schematic. You should know what the transistors look like so try find them! They are the things with the 3 prongs. If you take apart some electronic things you could probably find one in them. (just dont take apart your mom's iron like I did on my first pedal!)
Where to get Capacitors and resistors:
Old car radios seem to be packed with these! also if you have any old computer speakers (the ones that you have to plug in to power) they probably have what you need. Just scavenge around for things!
You can also take apart an old computer power supply and will garunteed have everything you need. Those will have a lot of rectifier diodes and some other types. But great for parts!, they have a few big capacitors too! you could do something cool with those.
You will probably need to buy the 1/4" jacks, the project enclosure, and everything else you cant find.
Step 8: Lets Get Soldering!!
Ok so now you should have the parts!
trace each connecting pole on the jack to where it connects. For now you want to use the one that connects to the J looking part that is at the bottom of the jack. Take that connecting pole and solder a piece of wire to it. Now, take your capacitor that could be anywhere from 0.1 uf to 100uf and connect it to the wire (if it is an electorlytic capacitor hook it up with the negative side facing away from the jack plug. do it like in the picture below.
Now take some wire and connect the other pole of the capacitor to the resistor around 100 k ohm resistor ( the one for the gain, the higher the resistance the more gain the lower the resistance the less gain) Connect it like in the picture below.
Now, take a wire and connect it from the side of the 0.1uf to 100uf capacitor that you hooked the resistor up to and connect it to the base pin of the transistor. Like in the picture!
Now take a wire and solder it to the 100 k ohm resistor, now connect that wire to the resistor that is around 10 K ohms.
Connect the 10K ohm resistor to the collector of the transistor!
Now, connect the collector of the transistor to the positive side of the capacitor with wire (if it is not an electrolytic capacitor it does not matter which way you connect it).
Now connect the diodes like in the picture!
Now connect a wire to the other pole on the jack and connect that to the diodes like shown in the picture!
now connect the other 100K ohm resistor as shown in the picture.
Connect the other jack how it says in the picture!
now connect the battery clip with the red wire connecting to the resistor that is around 10 K ohms. Connect the black wire from the clip to the pole on the input that does'nt hook up to "J" part. Connect the emitter of the transistor to the wire like in the pic!
You are almost finished! plug it in and try it out before you put it in the case/enclosure! just to be sure it works. If it doesn't work, well, do some troubleshooting, that should be fun! If it works then put it in the enclosure and if you want to, put some designs on it! If you want a bypass switch, the next step shows you how to put one in!
Step 20: Adding a Bypass Switch
You will need to buy a DPDT toggle switch or footswitch from your local electronics store. So go get one of those! It does not matter which way around you connect the switch. follow the pictures below.
Step 21: Alternate Powering Options
you can basically use any source of power from 2 volts to 12 volts.
If you want to add a power jack thingy, like on other foot pedals you buy, you will need to buy a power jack thing: parts.digikey.com/1/parts/103219-conn-pwr-jack-2-1x5-5mm-high-cur-pj-002ah.html
or you can see if you could find one at your local electronics store, or scavenge one from old items! but just hook it up like the battery + and - to where they should go! although i am not sure which is + and which is - on power jack things. google it or something!
Step 22: Adding Volume and Distortion Level Controls
You'll need to buy/find these things:
a 100 K ohm logarithmic potentiometer (volume)
a 1 K ohm linear potentiometer (distortion)
Then just hook em up like in the pictures!
Step 23: Fin!
thats it, hope you made it work!