I started this project out of a desire to keep my phone working on long bike tours. I needed a lightweight, inexpensive battery to put on my touring bike. Unfortunately, the lithium battery I needed costs 200 dollars new. Add a charger and powersupply and that's another 100 dollars. Batteryspace is my favorite place to get anything battery related online. You can see a comparable battery here . Thanks to some good luck, I was able to cobble together an 8 amp hour battery for about 100 dollars. This project takes a lot of soldering. You don't have to be super skilled; just tin a bunch of wires, and soldering the PCB is pretty easy.

I use this one on my bike for a headlight, tail light, radio, and cell phone charger.

Step 1: The PCB

If the batteries are the heart of the Li-ion battery, then the PCB is the brain. This is the one I used. It was 6.50 at Batteryspace. It was easy to solder wires on the PCB. It is designed to stop solder from spilling onto the rest of the board.

PCBs come indifferent varieties depending on number of cells, voltage, and capacity. Here is a list of all the PCBs you could use with 18650s on batteryspace.

Here are the specs for the one I used and I will explain what everything means...

Electric performance:

Overcharge protection voltage for single cell: 4.35V
Over discharge protection voltage for single cell: 2.40V
Over current detection protection: 4-6A
Supply current: Max 30uA
Short circuit protection
Protection circuitry resistance: <=50mohms

The PCB prevents overcharging because the delicate lithium ion chemistry of the battery can be damaged if charged with too high a voltage and the PCB will cut power to the cells if you did so. This should not be a problem if you charge with a smart balance charger. If you charge a cell with 4.2 volts, then the cell voltage will never rise above 4.2 volts, even if you charged the cell for weeks. You still don't want to charge a cell beyond the point at which it is charged. A smart charger will turn off once it has finished charging.

Many batteries can be discharged all the way to zero volts, this is not one of them. If the voltage of a lithium ion battery dropped to zero, or even below 2 volts, it would be damaged, and would never charge back up. Cell phones have this same protection. If you measured the voltage of a "dead" cell phone battery it would probably read 2.5 volts.

Over drain protection is necessary because this is a small PCB with tiny components and can only handle so much current. It shuts down to save itself when drawing between 4 and 6 amps.

Supply current is the current draw from the electronics on the PCB. It is practically nothing and will not drain your battery.

Short circuit protection means the PCB will turn off if it detected a short; if a wire became disconnected or if the wires crossed.

Protection circuitry resistance is the resistance caused by the PCB. All circuitry produces a little resistance. Again the drain is so little you will not notice it.
why 16.8volt you could just make a 7.2 volt battery pack use an 7805 to bring to 5 volts and give your self even more amp hours
<p>use a car adapter to usb, they can take 5-24 volts in and 5 volts out</p>
What is a 7805?
l7805cv is a 5v regulator brings the 7.2-12v down to 5 volts but needs a heatsing for voltages higher then 7.2 or if it going to be under heavy load.<br>what i use with my diy mobile charger 2 18650 in series for 7.2 volt then reduced to 5 volt by the 7805 ok losses of heat but if you look at that compared to a dc -dc converter that can use 1.5amp the little loss in heat is worth it
7805 are extremely inefficient power-wise (hence the heat sinking). They burn of excess voltage with current as heat. Since the real rating of a battery pack is watt-hours, 1. rearranging the batteries for a different voltage wont change the energy capacity (watt-hours) and 2. a 7805 will drastically reduce the effective watt-hours.
i was compareing ah dc to dc boost converter like they minty boost to a 7805
the 7805 is self adjusting resistive voltage splitter, really. you're not gainging any amp-hours by using it, but you are reducing the voltage.
i think i just found 18650 at 5000mah (5amph) will know more when money comes to get them
<p>those dont exist.</p>
Be careful here.<br><br>I HAVE found some 4200mAh rated 18650 cells, but they were Ni-MH(like here http://www.all-battery.com/browseproducts/One--4-3-AF-%2818650-Size%29-4200-mAh-high-capacity-NiMH-battery.html).<br><br>Those are completely different animals from Li-Ion 18650s.<br><br><br>You COULD use them for the same style project, but you'd need a different charger/charging setup.<br><br>Not to mention, they are still 1.2 volt.<br>So to get equal capacity...<br>for every two 18650 Li-Ion cells(we'll use an &quot;average&quot; 2600mAh@3.7v) you would need 3 18650 Ni-MH cells.<br>2x2600mAh@3.7v = 5200mAh@3.7v<br>3x4200mAh@1.2v = 4200mAh@3.6v<br><br>Trade offs are, safer to use/charge, but more weight, more space, less capacity, and good luke finding cheap/free Ni-MH.
http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&amp;item=270821277749&amp;clk_rvr_id=275620926262&amp;item=270821277749&amp;lgeo=1&amp;vectorid=229508<br><br>were the ones i was looking at to me it says 10x 18650 at 5000mah but it could also be 10 18650 5000mah total.<br>just depends id wording is right
I don't trust several brands of 18650s like trustfire and Ultrafire. They are poor quality batteries and they overestimate their capacity. There is no way a single 18650 could be 5 amp hours. A good quality cell could be no more than 3 amp hours. The cells on batteryspace are expensive but I am sure they are legit.
you are very right they turned out to be 1100mah
<p>Very informational instructable! I'm planning on using it to make a battery pack for a quadcopter. Originally, I was planning to use Panasonic NCR18650B's for it, but then I found <a href="http://www.ebay.com/itm/18650-3200mAh-3-7V-Rechargeable-Li-ion-Battery-for-UltraFire-LED-Flashlight-DB-/261530668000" rel="nofollow">these on eBay</a>. What do you think - can I use these? I'm going for ~ 2 C discharge rate. Thanks!</p>
<p>dont even buy those. they are so fake. buy a 12 cell laptop battery from amazon.</p>
<p>Dear experts,</p><p>Look like you can solve the problem that I am facing now.</p><p>I have about 20 x 5mw lasers and I need to design a system to drive it. At the moment I have 8 x 3.7V batteries (18650) connected in series and I found that even if I don't turn them on for a few days all the batteries became flat. Maybe because some of them are faulty and used up all the power?</p><p>The system that I am going to design include a Microchip PIC16F876A which needs 5V to drive it. So should I connect 2S4P (2 in series &amp; 4 in parallel) and use a voltage regulator to regulate it to 5V? I want to monitor it and charge them when required. Is this a good way to connect them? My concern is if one of them faulty then the whole thing will upset? How to avoid this? What is the best practice? I heard you guys mentioned about charging/discharging protection device - will this help? What sort of charger should I use because I am going to use this one from ebay to charge it:</p><p><a href="http://www.ebay.com/itm/5A-DC-to-DC-CC-CV-Lithium-Battery-Charger-Board-LED-Drive-Power-Converter-Module-/131065598006?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item1e841e5036" rel="nofollow">http://www.ebay.com/itm/5A-DC-to-DC-CC-CV-Lithium-...</a></p><p>If you have any suggestion please let me know.</p><p>Many thanks in advance</p>
<p>use a 12v car adapter to usb, they take 5-24 volts and regulate it down to 5v 1A</p>
<p>Please correct me if i'm wrong here but the charge profile of a li-ion is constant current then constant voltage with capacity measured by current dropping off. if you are using a balance charger across 4 cells in parallel the current will be 4x higher than its expecting thus providing incorrect feedback to the balance charger.? you could over charge your batteries</p>
seems everyone here is an expert,could you please help me?<br> I am using lifepo4 7 cells in series 2 in parallel,i dont know what kind of PCM I shoud use,my machine need 100A to boost first,then after started,the current only need around 30-50A.<br> <br> Please help to choose one good PCM from BesTech Power.
That seems like a lot of amps for just 2p
I found some trustfire batteries for $10 per 2 pack. <br> <br>With all the components for the summer project, my setup totals $200 plus unknown shipping for some things. <br> <br>If the batteries are found in laptop batteries, why not buy some of the mass-produced laptop batteries, take them apart, and save a few bucks over buying new individual cells? <br> <br>for example, buying 3 dell 11.1 volt, 4400 mah laptop batteries would cost $52 and gives 2 extra cells in case of a dead cell. <br>link: http://www.amazon.com/Dell-Inspiron-1545-Laptop-Battery/dp/B002MG6OO6/ref=sr_1_4?s=pc&amp;ie=UTF8&amp;qid=1366750261&amp;sr=1-4&amp;keywords=dell+laptop+battery <br> <br> <br>Individually, the best price/quality I could find was trustfire @ $5/cell with unknown shipping cost, which adds up to $80 plus shipping.
Buy 12 cell packs on amazon
If I want to make my own battery pack what consideration do I need to make for the wires? As the voltage and amperage increase do I need to use ever larger wires? If I just use the same large wire t/o the build won't the increased resistance keep any of the cells from contributing power? <br> <br>In short, if I want to build a battery that can power a 72 volt motor, what gauge wire should I use when wiring up my parallel/series pack?
I would use 14 gauge
<p>hello .. amazing project , well built </p><p>but i have some question here </p><p>the pcb has an over charge protection beside other functions . yet you used a charger to charge the batteries with ballance . im a little confused here !!</p><p>can the pcb be used to charge the batteries instead the charger ?</p><p>because when reading the specs of the pcb it says ( charge and discharge terminal on p+/p-)</p><p>plz do correct if i missed any thing .</p><p>(sry . old post but i need some answers .. thanks any way)</p>
You can but it won't balance charge
<p>You got it right. The PCB is a protection board which does all of the balancing on its own. Connect any power supply under 20 volts and it should work just fine. Buying a balanced charger defeats the whole purpose of trying to save money.</p>
<p>hello i need help i'm starting out making portable chargers and speaker systems powered by recycled li-ion batteries and this helped alot but couldn't i charge 2 li-ion batteries in parallel if it is being powered by a 5v charger </p>
Too much voltage, fire risk
<p>Just so you're aware, for less than $30 you can head on down to any battery shop and pick up an 8AH SLA that'll run all your equipment just as long, and doesn't require expensive or complicated equipment.</p>
A 14 ah sla can be replaced with 21 18650 cells, higher energy density and lighter, as well aas you can discharge below half without damage to the battery
<p>Hi there, stumbled upon your tutorial whilst searching for how to DIY a battery pack.<br><br>Here's my issue, I don't come from an electronics background so pardon me if this sounds a bit simple.<br><br>From what I gathered on your 2nd page and what I have in mind, I'm actually planning to make a single pack of 6 18650s, 7.4v, into a camera battery casing which is meant exactly for that, but I'm using higher capacity cells because the originals are quite low cap. <br><br>Anyway, from your explanation, it seems that I'm looking at a 2S3P configuration am I right? If I am, the problem now is the soldering. I need help wiring them to each other. Could you hit me up at ho.zhenjie@gmail.com? Appreciate it tons!</p>
Just make 2 packs of 3 cells, solder a wire across the top and the bottom of the two packs then join them together
I am making a small battery pack from a 12v usb charger and 3s2p18650 cells, using a drill battery as the housing. It will have the full capacity of an average laptop battery, as that is where I got the 6 cells. Once my balance charger ships to me and I have enough cells I am going to take an old broken goal zero battery pack and convert it to lithium.
<p>What a great write-up! Does anyone know the configuration I'd need for a 48V 20Ah battery pack?</p>
Assuming the cells are 2500mah then you would need 12s8c
<p>I am about to start a project but something in not clear to me about the PCB. Does this PCB only protect and balance the batteries or does it also have a smart charger function. In other words, can I just put a 12V 2A load on it or do I still need a seperate 12 volt Li-On/Li-Po charger??</p>
I also have a 18650 battery project, but spent much less for a 4S4P
<p>I have a friend that works for a cable company. They use back up battery packs in telephone modems and he had a bunch that were taken out of service and he gave them to me. They all had 2 or 4 18650 batteries in them. I ended up with 24 of them for free. Some were light blue and some of the better ones were purple.</p>
Thanks, these are the most detailed instructions ever about li-ion battery packs.
<p>I love this project. I am a total novice when it comes to electronics but it is very interesting. I am trying to build a light weight battery to run my telescope. It will run on the 11.1 volt configuration. I have 21 good cells, so I was going to place them in a S3P7 configuration. My question to you is, can you recommend a PCB for that configuration? I the one you have is only for a P4? I do not understand that part of the build. Thank you so much for posting such a cool idea.</p>
<p>is it really usefull to have a pcb + hobby charger?</p>
<p>First and foremost thanks for the article. I was wondering if it is necessary to use a PCM/PCB if you are buying tabbed batteries (built in protection circuits). Also, I'm thinking of charging straight from my PCM with a voltage regulated line from solar - thoughts? Again thank you so much!!!</p>
<p>Any 18650 above 2600mA hour is probably unprotected. Some of the space is used for the protection circuit in the cell and prevents fires from faulty chargers. The Chinese batteries with no built in protection use the space for more chemistry, but I would be suspicious of anything more than 4000mA Hour.</p><p>The protection board in this 'ible provides full protection for single cells connected correctly to it's pads. You can then use a laptop power supply to drive the board. If you only need 15 volts at 3Amp / hour just use 4 Chinese cells.</p><p>If you need to parallel the cells they should have individual protection (and cost twice as much and have a maximum 2.6A/h capacity.) To get your 15 volts at 3 A/h you will need 8 cells wired in parallel pairs to the protection board in this 'ible.</p><p>If you charge and discharge your battery pack through the circuit board you can not go above the current ratings for the board without damaging it.</p><p>tldr? 4 cheap hi capacity chinese cells on the board in the 'ible will not catch fire</p><p>if using 8 or 12 cells they should be protected cells. The board can't protect them all, because it can't monitor separate cells - only paralleled sets of 2/3/4 cells</p><p>Protected cells don't really need this board, but would still benefit from a smart (expensive) charger. The more you pay the less chance of Li-ion fires.</p><p>Cheap Chinese high A/h cells or reclaimed / secondhand cells need a protection board or smart balancing chargers to avoid fires.</p>
Hi,<br> <br> Sorry, to dig up an old thread, but I was interested in this project and was also questioning/converned whether the PCB can be connected to more the battery cells in parallel and series.<br> <br> I found this PCB on eBay:<br> <br> <a href="http://www.ebay.com/itm/4S-Li-ion-Lithium-Battery-Input-Ouput-Protection-Board-PCB-14-4V-14-8V-16-8V-5A-/221179238980?ssPageName=ADME:X:RTQ:US:1123" rel="nofollow">http://www.ebay.com/itm/4S-Li-ion-Lithium-Battery-Input-Ouput-Protection-Board-PCB-14-4V-14-8V-16-8V-5A-/221179238980?ssPageName=ADME:X:RTQ:US:1123</a><br> <br> which has been designed for 4S battery packs. However, it does state:<br> <br> <strong><em>&quot;Could also work for 4S2P (8 cells) , 4S3P (12 cells), 4S4P (16 cells) etc.&quot;</em></strong><br> <br> I enquired about this to the seller and they responded back that it can be done and helpfully provided this diagram of how it can be wired (for 4S3P):<br> <br> <a href="http://postimg.org/image/ray6gs0yv/" rel="nofollow">http://postimg.org/image/ray6gs0yv/</a><br> <br> However, I am still concerned by the fact the each individual in each 3P pack cannot be protected.<br> <br> I found this very useful page about parallel charging battery packs:<br> <br> <a href="https://sites.google.com/site/tjinguytech/charging-how-tos/parallel-charging" rel="nofollow">https://sites.google.com/site/tjinguytech/charging-how-tos/parallel-charging</a><br> <br> You can also use do&nbsp; parallel balance charging (with appropriate parallel balance adapters). So I'm wondering whether this may be a better (but more expensive) method/option - i.e. you have separate 3S (or more) battery packs, each one having its own PCB. You would then parallel balance charge all the indivial 3S packs.
as i said befor here you need 4 pcb's to keep all batterys balanced
You only need one PCB. And you balance the pack with the balance leads and charger.
one battery holder with 4 in parallel one battery could be dead and other will charge higher like they would in series i have tried it and this happens <br><br>i had 2s4p and found that they was one bettery not charging right when i stripped the pack the others were higher then they should of been the dead one wasent charging to 4.2 but maxed at 4v the other were at 4.4 after the unit was broken down
same for &quot;protected&quot; batteries?

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