How to make Lichtenberg Figures using High Voltage.
The Lichtenberg figures were first noticed in the 1777 by Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, while doing high voltage experiments.
The two dimensional versions made by this device are fractal-like in their design. They can resemble lightning in their shape.
Step 1: Acquire a High Voltage Power Source
Step one: Get or make a high voltage power supply.
See my Jacob's Ladder Instructable at https://www.instructables.com/id/Quick-and-Easy-Ja...
I used the base of that for my power source for this Instructable.
The other module shown is an automatic shut-off timer I built from a bathroom fan timer. The Instructable for that is here:
Step 2: Modifications Made to Unit
Remove the electrodes from the Jacob's Ladder.
The power cord is from a 12 volt battery extension plug which was permanently reassigned for this project.
The two center holes where the Jacobs ladder electrodes were removed from, were used to pass the wires.
The wires were knotted underneath the plastic to give some strain relief if they are ever pulled.
The wire ends are attached to the high-voltage outputs of the Flyback Transformer.
The polarity is not important. There is no positive or negative electrodes as the current is alternating.
Two mini-cups were used for protectors over the exposed electrodes.
Hot glue is used to keep the cups temporarily attached during testing. Future modifications may change that.
Step 3: Other Materials Required
Jar of Water
Scrap Wood from the laser cutter room.
Using a Mason Jar, add about a quarter to a third full of baking soda, then top it up with hot water to make a supersaturated solution.
Shake or mix the jar until most of the baking soda was dissolved, then let it settle.
After it's been cooling for a while, crystals form with some of the bicarbonate of soda.
The spray bottle is filled with plain water, and can be used to re-wet areas which dry out. The spray can be used while the power is running.
The spray can also be used to cool hot areas or staunch small flames.
Step 4: Wet the Board
This solution is used to wet the plywood.
Use a piece of paper towel, or a cloth, and soak it in the solution, wring it out a bit, but keep it very wet.
Re-wet it if necessary.
Wetting the plywood causes the top layer to be more conductive of electricity. The next layer of adhesive acts as a barrier, preventing most of the water from penetrating the core.
Tip: Your hand will quickly dry, and feel stiff when applying the saturated solution. Rubber gloves can be used. A quick wash with water after applying the solution will help.
Step 5: The Setup
Attach one electrode clip to the board.
The other end may be attached to the other end of the board, or may be held above the board to manipulate the discharge.
An electrode could also be attached to the clip for more precise burning, or to a longer stick as a safety measure.
Step 6: Watch It Grow
These peculiar shapes made by electrical discharges were first noticed in 1777 by Georg Christoph Litchenberg while he was experimenting with high voltage electricity.
The designs are organic in nature, and have a fractal style in their pattern.
This pattern will occur in nature as lightning bolts. People hit with high voltage discharges may have these figures on the surface of their skin.
Step 7: Safety Tips
Don't let anyone get close to the clips or board while it's in operation.
Never touch the wet board with your hand while there is power flowing. The whole surface will be electrically active.
Don't touch plastic with the hot electrodes, keep them well away from any surface that could be damaged by heat, and never place the board or electrodes on a metallic surface while in operation.
The plastic box makes a good platform to place the wood while burning, as long as the wood is large enough to extend past the edge, allowing the clip to freely attach to the wood.