Iron oxide is available in many forms, grades and colours. It can also be made many different ways using various processes, these include chemical - electrical and naturally occurring surface oxide from weathering. Iron as an element literally has it's own chapter of varied and unique chemistry which makes it very interesting. It's many uses include -Making Other Chemicals -Reagent in Chemical Reactions- Civil & Mechanical Engineering - Pottery - Arts & Crafts are to name but a few. - One of its notable practical uses is joining and cutting Steel-when it is combined with another metal-this process has also been highlighted on many popular science programs'
Iron is also used in it's oxide form in old Audio & Video cassette tapes.
Iron is within the centre of our Planet, in Meteors, Our Sun and our bodies blood for carrying oxygen.....
The point of my instructable is to be a practical and educational guide to making a usable small scale product. I will be demonstrating a very unique way of producing this very useful chemical.
Step 1: Gathering Materials
The most ideal form of iron for this part is an alloy of iron & carbon known as steel. Steel has many other alloying agents apart from carbon depending on it's application - whether it needs to be wear resistant - high tensile - malleable - weather proof - stain proof - tool steel etc. For this stage you will need a big handful of mild steel turnings (Medium to fine) not big course ribbons, this will not work. Coarse steel wool is excellent if you have some to hand instead. A hand full is about 200-300gms
Step 2: Necessary Tools
What You needs as follows;- Safety Gear
Leathers and Cottons only --//cotton overalls - welder a gloves - googles
Tongs / Pliers / Hammer/ Steel Block /Lump Hammer / 10+ Ton Press /Fine Sieve / Map Gas Torch/ Air-Line /75mm X100mmX 3mm Steel Pipe-Or Empty Co2 Mig Bottle Cut at Both Ends.....Fire brick or Breeze Block. Small steel plate to slightly cover cylinder. Ventilation.
Step 3: Your Set Up
To Begin with you will need a base- this consists or one or two fire bricks or something like a breeze block then a steel block say 3/4" A4 size steel plate, which sits on top. Then you will need your Cylinder/ Pipe this will hold your Steel-Wool/ Turnings. See images above. You will then need to charge your cylinder like you would a cannon or musket! Using the tongs/ hammer - the reason is because it needs to be compact because it does condense when being heated. Now you will need a small 1/2" plate to cover allowing a small space for your air-line Blower......
Step 4: The Process Involved
This part is tricky - I stumbled upon this by accident! whilst experimenting one day!! I then did some research to find if this was a widely known process and if so who discovered it. Well I did find him, he was an American guy call William Kelly - he basically pioneered this process and called it [AIR BOILING] it is the pre-cursor of the Bessemer Process ....but like all brilliant people he fell foul of foul play!!! Bessemer was granted the patent first even though Kelly Proved he had been developing and experimenting for years. It's is known now as The [BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS] Please Google Kelly ;-)
William Kelly (inventor) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.m.wikipedia.org › wiki › Willia...
Step 5: The Chemistry
Air boiling is the process we will be carrying out with our CHARGE. Basically like an industrial foundry, we shall be in a roundabout way boiling our steel wool/ turnings....... As we ignite our steel via the bottom of our cylinder using a torch or (Gas & Air) once a bright yellow portion starts to propagate - we then proceed, to gently kindle it with our air supply - the air we breathe contains 20% Oxygen - Nowadays they use up to 100%. But our 20% is ample. As we continue the temperature increases to several hundred degrees and is Self- Sustaining - Without the Gas Torch but continued with the Air-Line. The temperature increase is caused by the oxidation of the carbon and In-turn our Iron - "It Literally Starts To Boil" as the oxygen bonds to the iron Fe+O2 ---> Fe2O3 it thus becomes Fe+II/III Oxidation State ;-)
Step 6: Air Boiling Continued.
As you can see the temperature increases - my container is now orange this is where you safety gear is a necessity -as stray sparks can be quite a surprise and a good sign we are proceeding the right direction and ventilation is important too!!!! We must be gentle to regulate the air and now and then tamp down the turnings that have not sunk and boiled!!!!!
Step 7: Finishing & Processing Iron Oxide
As we approach the end if this journey we now have to process our product which at the moment is 75% iron oxide 25% inclusion of solid Steel fragments or precipitated higher alloys and unchanged Starting materials. Now all we have to do is PRESS - SIEVE - AND Repeat until we have a very reasonable fine powdered FeO-FeO2/O3 with some slight impurities .... What we are left with is a product which can be used by the scientist/ home experimentalist.
>>>>>Suppliment<<<<<< :- If you weigh the steel first, before conversion. Then subtract any lumps of higher alloys, Metal pieces and original starting materials left after Pressing & Sieving Several times until no more powerder forms. You can Tare/Subtract this, from the weight you started with. Now Subtract this from your new weight and you can work out the amount of Oxygen that has bonded to your new product.
--- many thanks for watching please enjoy and comment ;-D