Introduction: Making Lox at Home

Picture of Making Lox at Home

My wife wanted Lox for Easter. She's meshuggeneh, right?

Hi, I'm Scotty C. and I make delicious things to eat.

2.5 years ago my wife bought me a class on charcuterie and I've been making sausages, BBQ, ham, bacon and smoked cheeses ever since. I had been cold smoking cheese and bacon the last 6 mos so she bought 2 lbs (0.9kg) of lovely COHO salmon ($11.99/lb) at Whole Foods and told me, "make this into LOX." Lox is a cold smoked cured salmon. It is a delicacy to be savored and enjoyed. It's also expensive as hell, the above photo shows 2lbs delivered for $105. After you do this Instructable you can make Coho Lox for about $13/lb.

I did a lot of research online and discovered one thing. Everyone has their own way to make lox, and no two ways are exactly the same. I finally settled on two recipes that were similar and blended them together to make my own Lox. This is a long 3 day process to make. There are a lot of steps. I will break it down for you. You can do it.

Step 1: Prep, Deboning, Fresh Vs Frozen Salmon

Picture of Prep, Deboning, Fresh Vs Frozen Salmon

Whole Foods had a previously frozen COHO salmon section, previously frozen is fine because then you don't have to worry about any parasites. My wife bought it, it was $24.00 for 2 lbs.

Using a clean utility knife on the lowest setting score the skin so it reaches the flesh. This lets the cure penetrate the skin side.

Use a pair of pliers to remove the bones. These bones can be removed before or after the process, I prefered to do it before. You can see them easily and feel them with your finger by running it along the fish on the highest part of the fillet. There will be a lot of bones, and you might miss a few. Don't panic. Do your best.

The Thing About Fresh vs Frozen Fish

Most "fresh" salmon sold in your store was frozen on the boat after it was caught, but the store doesn't tell you this. Ask your fishmonger if it was previously frozen. Freezing kills any bacteria and parasites in the fish before making your lox. If you can't confirm your salmon was previously frozen I would advise a 4-6 hour freeze when you are done making the lox, then thaw before serving. Of course, people have been eating this preparation for hundreds and hundreds of years with few side effects, I am just mentioning this since it is a cured, smoked, but uncooked product.

Step 2: Dry Brine the Salmon

Picture of Dry Brine the Salmon

A dry brine is prepared of these ingredients:

100g salt
60g dark brown sugar
1 tsp black peppercorns
5-10 juniper berries

I used a coffee grinder on the pepper and juniper berries after I heated them in a pan to release their essential oils. Mix all the dry ingredients and spices together thoroughly.

Get a sealable reusable plastic food container and line the inside with plastic wrap with lots of overhang.

Pour about 1/3 the cure on the bottom of your dish. Place the fish skin side down into the container.

Take the the remaining 2/3rd of cure, work it in slowly and gently on top of the fish, lightly rub it on then pack it over the entire fish.

Wrap with overlapping plastic wrap and poke a lot of holes with a sharp paring knife in the plastic on the skin side to allow the liquid to drain off. Cover with the lid, and place into the fridge for 8-12 hours.

As for the nebulous 8-12 hour time estimate allow me to explain. Guides for this step online vary greatly in time estimates, some claim "8 hours maximum or you'll ruin the fish". Others say 12hrs. Still more say longer times.

I settled on a merging of two recipes that were similar in every way other than the times. In any case where there were conflicting or disparate claims on times, I took the average. In this case, the fish was in the dry stage for 10 hours. Yes I know the note says 8, I changed my mind. This is my Lox party.

Step 3: 10 Hours Later, Wet Brine

Picture of 10 Hours Later, Wet Brine

The second stage is a wet brine, where the fish is submerged in a salt and sugar solution to further cure the fish and remove water from the flesh before cold smoking. This is a very important step.

I had a recipe for a brine that called for 50lbs of salmon from one place. Another recipes was for 5 gallons, so I reduced the quantities down for 1 quart of water. Most recipes assume for larger quantities of fish because it's so time intensive to make lox. Your fish will sit in this brine for 8-12 hours.

Wet Brine:
1 Quart water
0.7 cups of salt
0.35 cups dark brown sugar
1/4 tsp. peppercorns
4-5 juniper berries

The spices were lightly toasted in a frying pan then crushed before adding. The brine should be left for 4 hours minimum in your refrigerator before using, this will allow the spices to meld. I made this brine in advance and let it sit overnight while the fish was in the dry brine stage.

The salmon is removed from the plastic lined container, there will be a lot of liquid in there to discard. Gently rinse the salmon off under lightly flowing cold water. Wash out your plastic container and place the rinsed fish into it. Pour the brine over the fish so it is completely covered and put the lid back on. Label the time and date.

I leave notes on all my projects because even I forget what the heck is in my fridge from week to week. I also set alarms on my phone's calendar to go off to remind me. If you have 4 or 5 ore more things working at once you need to get into the practice of labelling everything you make. It's a good practice, and doing things like this incorrectly can make people very ill. Good notes let you repeat the process over and over. Keep a small notebook with quantities, ingredients, cook times, etc. and you will get better and better at this in time.

Step 4: Freshening the Salmon

Picture of Freshening the Salmon

While many recipes for making lox couldn't agree on much, they all agreed you needed to let the cured salmon to sit in a sink under cool running water for 30m. So after dumping out the brine, that's just what I did. Let it run under cold water on a moderately low setting and just let that go for 30 minutes.

Step 5: Drying the Salmon

Picture of Drying the Salmon

The best way to get the fish to dry before cold smoking is to use a teflon lined cookie cooling sheet over a sheet pan with paper towels on it. You don't need the paper towels, but it makes cleanup a lot faster. Remove the fish from the water and pat it dry on the drying sheet. You can also use a clean grill grate in place of the teflon lined cookie cooking sheet. It works just as well.

Put the Salmon into the fridge for a few hours, I let it dry for about 6 hours. According to other recipes they called for drying your fish for as little as 1 hour, and as long as up to 24 hours.

After 6 hours remove from the refrigerator, 30m before this you should prep your smoker as shown in the next step.

Step 6: Cold Smoking, My Method

Picture of Cold Smoking, My Method

There are a lot of schools of thought on cold smoking. Sawdust or pellets are the preferred method. I use pellets because I tried them a year ago and they work the best for me. You can use any method you want with any wood, wood sawdust, charcoal, pellet or blend you like. No hate, just LOVE for my BBQ and charcuterie pals.

Wood Pellets Demystified

They are compressed sawdust. They give a great wood flavor to anything you eat. Mystery Over.

Wood pellets for smoking foods can be gotten in many wood varieties and are relatively cheap and last a long time.

There are two brands shown here in my photos, the front is Trager - they are just OK to me and are made of 30% applewood, 70% oak (oak is considered a filler wood, not a flavor wood) but they are decent on cheese. The other bag shown are made by CookinPellets and are an all hardwood blend of maple, hickory, apple and cherry. I went with those, and recommend them, they are a remarkable bargain.

Smoking Trays

I am using a sawdust (and wood pellet) smoking tray from Amazenproducts. This little tray is what I use for all my cold smoking projects, sausages, cheese, or to add more smoke to BBQ projects.

The easiest way to light the wood pellets is with a simple hardware store propane torch. I set the tray on a brick before lighting. It takes a good minute or two to get them to light. I load both sides of the tray, but only light one side. When the left side burns out in 6 hours I can remove it, light the other side, and quickly get it back inside my smoker. I will get 12 hours of smoke from this set up.

My Smoker

Don't let the heavenly rays fool you, it's just an older 30" Masterbuilt Electric Smoker. To cold smoke we use it like a refrigerator. The smoker is not plugged in or turned on at all during the cold smoke process.

I put ice into 1-2 sealed ziplocks and use 2-3 frozen bottles of water to use in the smoker to keep it cold. I want the chamber cold, but not too humid. If I just put ice loose into my drip pan the chamber would be very high in humidity. We want it cold and dry. The idea is to not let the smoker get above 70F (21C) in the chamber - this is a great temperature for cold smoking fish and cheese.

I used two temperature probes, one in the metal rack under the fish, one outside the smoker poking into the smoke outlet. I took the average of the two to determine temperature inside the chamber. They ran within 2 degrees of each other most of the smoking process.

I let the fish smoke for 15 hours over cold smoke. The temperature of the smoker averaged 64F (18C) the whole time, with a low of 59F (15C) and a high of 68F (20C). I had an alarm set on my temperature remote to go off it the temperature went above 72F. If you don't own a wireless remote temperature probe, you should try one out once you seriously get into this hobby, they are essential for long smoking projects.

I don't have a cold smoker tray, can I make one?

You can make a simple smoking pellet tray from a disposable steel pie pan (no non stick ones please).

Poke holes with a small nail in the shape of a letter C on the pie pan - make the holes fill a 1" (2.5cm) wide band.

Place a 1x1" (2.5cm x 2.5cm) line of wood pellets over the holes and light one end, it will burn like a snake.

Make a small coil of aluminum foil into an S shape. Place S shaped foil in your smoking box, and put the pie pan on top, this gives good airflow.

I don't have a cool smoker setup like you, can I make one?

YES! A aluminum lined cardboard box with a piece of unglazed quarry tile on the bottom will work well. Just make a hole on top for your smoke to escape, and a small air inlet on the bottom to let air in. Use your pie pan as described above to burn the pellets. I will make an instructable in the future showing how to make both of these.

Step 7: Taste Test, Vacuum Seal

Picture of Taste Test, Vacuum Seal

I let the fish sit in the fridge for an hour before slicing, tasting and vacuum sealing. Fish cured, smoked, and sealed in this manner will keep up to 3 years in your deep freezer. It won't ever last longer than 3 months though because you will eat it all once you sample a piece.

The flesh is firm, the color is a deep orange, and the taste was spot on. And the best part? It looks and tastes just like the real thing for 1/4 the price.

It is a time consuming process to make, but well worth it. After I did this, I understand why people do this 50lbs at a time, it takes almost 3 days from start to finish!

Maybe the best lox ever? Y E S !


pachytrance (author)2015-12-29


mart33n33 (author)2015-03-29

Added an instructable for making smoked salmon cream cheese afterwards!

Steamcrunk (author)mart33n332015-05-03


Joe Byers (author)2015-04-02

Your instructable is well presented. As you said, there are many ways of making cold smoked salmon. I, like you, always freeze the salmon. However, I skip the dry curing step and go directly to the brine overnight. For the brine, I use just enough non-iodized salt to barely float a whole raw egg. This gives me about a 10% solution. I use half as much brown sugar as the salt for the brine. My smoker is an operating dorm room size refrigerator. No need for ice with this. My smoke generator is a tin can(steel). I open the can only half way so that I can bend it back closed. I put a pencil point size soldering iron in a hole on the top of the can opposite the opening. I fill the can with chips bend the top back down and plug in the soldering iron. I put the can in a ceramic dish tilted so that the chips settle onto the tip of the iron as they are consumed. This also protects the bottom of the refrigerator form the heat of the can. Closing the door of the refrigerator makes a good seal to keep in the smoke.

Steamcrunk (author)Joe Byers2015-05-03

Sounds good! A good macgyvered solution.

slo5oh (author)2015-03-27

Please don't shoot the messenger here. You may want to update your "warning" [quote]Freezing kills any bacteria and parasites in the fish before making your lox.[/quote] I don't think this is accurate. Here's a good writeup with a LOT more warning: . From that site: [quote]Among other pathogens, Clostridium botulinum, the botulism bug, the one that makes a neurotoxin that kills people, loves improperly produced sausage and smoked fish.[/quote]

Steamcrunk (author)slo5oh2015-03-27

I've read that article, I also think they are 100% wrong. That's's opinion. People have been cold smoking fish and meat for thousands of years. I'll take my chances and do the recipes according to time honored traditions.

rdwanj (author)Steamcrunk2015-04-02

I've re- read your beautiful post ten times; can't find any mention of how long you wet-brined.

ejsilver26 (author)rdwanj2015-04-02

If you look at the picture, it shows when he put it in and takes it out. 12 hours.

Steamcrunk (author)ejsilver262015-05-03

Thanks ej, I made it clearer in the post too to clear that up.

Steamcrunk (author)rdwanj2015-05-03

I am sorry I fixed this to be clearer. The wet brine stage is 8-12 hours. If you like the fish a little less salty, lean towards 8, if you like it saltier, closer to 12.

devin.flint.7 (author)Steamcrunk2015-04-02

I was wondering this myself, but it is a fact that bacteria and parasites can survive freezing.

ahp2267 (author)2015-04-02

Great Instructable, I want to try this. How long does the fish need to stay in the brine and while brining should the brining container be placed in the refrigerator? Thanks.

Steamcrunk (author)ahp22672015-04-02

Dry brine step: 8-12 hours
Rinse fish
Wet Brine Step: 8-12 hours
Dry Fish on rack: 2-6 hours
Smoke at 70F for 2-24 hours depending on your smoke preference.
Vacuum seal and refrigerate/freeze them

ahp2267 (author)Steamcrunk2015-04-02

Lovely, Thank you very much. I can't wait to try it.

Steamcrunk (author)ahp22672015-05-03

I wish you success!

Steamcrunk (author)ahp22672015-04-02

I refrigerated the fish during all steps. It was sitting in the fridge for the dry and wet brine steps, and it rests in the fridge air drying before smoking.

technosapien (author)2015-04-03

Hey, how long does the fish stay in the wet brine?

Steamcrunk (author)technosapien2015-05-03

8-12 hrs.

t.rohner (author)2015-04-06

Very nice instructable

I also made a couple of salmon sides in my time. About 5 years back, i made around 300lb for a friend. Quite some work... Normally, i make around 10-20 sides in the cold season. (My smoker is outside, but i plan to build a cold smoker from a modified fridge...) When it gets really cold, i even need to heat my smoker. I built in a thermostat and a electrical grill igniter.

I only dry brine it. But besides salt, sugar and pepper, i add some lemon juice, cognac and a lot of herbs. Every 12 hours, i restack them, top to bottom into a second stainless tray. For 36 hours, then i rinse them, dry them and smoke them for 10 hours. After smoking, it's good to let them vacuumed for 2-3 days, before eating. So the smoke taste can even out.

I also make graved salmon. After rinsing, i apply fresh herbs and (a little more)spices before vacuuming.

I also keep the salmon refrigerated all the time. (4°C, except during smoking at around 15°C)

Some pictures of the vacuum sealer, smoker with some salmon and stainless tray for brining...

Steamcrunk (author)t.rohner2015-05-03

That is a great smoking setup!

elephantwalker (author)2015-04-04

thanks for the great info. We make an unsmoked gravelox version and will try this method and smoke.

There is one thing to note. I have spent a lot of time in the restaurant business as a waiter ,etc. One place , in Fl , was owned by a Novie- anyhow originally from Nova Scotia , that had a smokehouse in Novie send down lox that was supposidly a supplier for the Queen(England of course). It was great . Bottom line is that everyplace that I have worked and sold lox slices on a bias. Less than a 45 or so. Gives you a bigger slice and makes it easier. Sharp knife down to skin and with the angle it is a natural motion to slide knive under lox , lift and place on plate.

Keep up the good work.

You are correct about cutting it on the bias. I used a very nice thin fillet knife on the second piece today at Easter. Everyone loved it.

That would be a great easter treat as it is cured and so it is not "fresh" (just like easter ham) but it shows that you had food left after making it through the winter and enough to celebrate the coming of spring. This to me is the real meaning of spring/easter. That from the death of a beautiful creature comes the new life again that we can see at easter. Tulip and other bulb flowers poking through the garden soil. Chives, great with the salmon as well, are ready for use already. Grab em' , chop if you want , toss them in eggs and finish dishes with them .

What did you choose to serve with your salmon? We make a sauce with mustard , white pepper ( not black- white pepper can be a " secret" magic ingredient) and dill. Believe to be swedish. Have seen chopped hard cooked egg, fine diced onion-your choice, lemon and capers. Believe these to be "classic " accompaniments to the smoked lox.

Thanks for your take one the process for making lox.

Good choice on the knife by the way.

Enjoy your food and life.

Mike Robinson
The Elephant Walk Bed and Breakfast

I'm originally from Northern N.J. so the lox was served on a Everything Bagel with a light schmear of cream cheese, diced red onion, and capers. :)

omikeo (author)2015-04-02

i make a fast version of it with any white fish or salmon, about 30 minutes or so in soy sauce and brown sugar, then into the smoker(cherry wood currently) for about an hour. Mine may not be called lox, but in about 90 minutes you have something tasty for the cheese and crackers followed by a good ipa. thanks, mike

Steamcrunk (author)omikeo2015-04-05

Yepper. There's Smoked Salmon (like you did, and how I've also done in the past), there's lox (cured, no cold smoke), and nova lox (cured, cold smoked).

madamH (author)2015-04-02

AWESOME! Bought my husband a propane-powered wood smoker for Christmas, he used it this past weekend for the first time to smoke some ribs. They turned out better than we expected, and your Instructable for lox is definitely worth a try, we both LOVE salmon.

Thanks for taking the time and effort to make such a detailed recipe. Hope to try this soon...

Steamcrunk (author)madamH2015-04-05

You are quite welcome!

rowswell (author)2015-04-02

Good Instructable! I have a batch of fish in the freezer waiting to be smoked & will try this recipe on the next batch. (I have a home built smoke box, but use a Bradley smoke generator).

I'm lucky that I live on the west coast so have lots of access to salmon of all types (halibut, ling cod & other "white" fish also make v good cold smoked fish as well), so my cost per pound is v low (although if you price in the cost of boat, fuel, etc, I'd be afraid to see what the cost per pound would work out to....). It also helps that I'm able to validate the quality of the fish I use as I have visibility of all stages of the production process.

with respect to the site that slo5oh refers to. While it is very appropriate that anyone making any kind of smoked product understand the basic science & potential danger areas, many of the points raised seem to be expressed in the extreme. The most important factors to mitigate risk are:

1. ensure that the fish you use has been properly processed and stored before you purchase it. In this case, freezing is your friend & has the added benefit of killing parasites that may be in the flesh. As fish commercially sourced is subject to regulations commencing from the time it is caught (whether it be farmed or commercially fished), this is typically not an issue. However, like all of us, I often see some pretty sad fish on display in markets & certainly wouldn't think of making cold or hot smoked anything from a fish that looked like it had been on display too long (dry, with sunken eyes or skin that doesn't 'bounce back" rapidly when pressed with a finger)

2. make sure you maintain a sanitary work environment & store the fish properly once made. If frozen (or eaten) immediately after being made, the chance anything can go wrong is minimized.

LeeE2 (author)2015-04-02

Looks yummy! We make "gravlax" all the time............... same as your recipe, just not dried or smoked. Hopefully readers know that it is important to use only brining/kosher/pickling salt and NOT ordinary iodized table salt. The iodized stuff can turn your lovely, pricey chunk of salmon into a gummy, discolored, bad tasting MESS. Don't ask me how I learned this ..... :-)

Gairuntee (author)2015-04-02

I wonder would this work for different kinds of oily deep water fish. Hmmmm.

danzo321 (author)2015-04-02

I have mulberry wood.. is there a list somewhere of better wood for smoking?

BG_instructs (author)2015-03-27

great, problem any kind of fish here starts at 18 dollar/kg. Becomming the reason not to eat fish anymore, damn shame, meat starts at 7.5 usd/kg for porc.

still i want to try this asap weather is better.

Steamcrunk (author)BG_instructs2015-03-27

$18/kg is cheaper than I paid. I paid $12.99 lb, so that'd be $28/kg. I don;t know what salmon prices are like by you (or where that is exactly).

Bard (author)2015-03-27

I never had lox but I have eaten salmon bones and all. the bones were always soft.

It could of been the way it was cooked.

Steamcrunk (author)Bard2015-03-27

It must have been how it was cooked (pressure cooked perhaps?)

oringcord (author)2015-03-27

it looks very delicous,

ckirn (author)2015-03-26

I don't want to be a Debbie downer. but as a peddler of all things Jewish and fish, I feel I should point out that lox is actually not smoked, once you smoke the salmon it's just called smoked salmon, gravlax is just cured. your tutorial is amazing though. I do this many times a day and can't say how much I enjoy it. we get whioe sides of Atlantic Salmon and smoke it in our BBQ joint's giant smoker packed in ice. it's amaze balls!

Steamcrunk (author)ckirn2015-03-26

You are correct, it's technically Nova Lox.

rookietech (author)2015-03-26

Would love to learn about your cheese from start to finish. Thank you so much for this information!

Steamcrunk (author)rookietech2015-03-26

For cheese it's nearly identical. It's basically same temperature range but you can go a little warmer (70-90F), but as for the smoking section of this instructables it's the same method. Just cut cheese into blocks and place in the smoker box. 4-6 hours is plenty of cold smoke time for a nice smoky cheddar. I've gone as long as 8 hours on some aged cheddar. 2 hours gives a light smoke.

Wrap the smoked cheese blocks in aluminum foil after you take them out, and store in the fridge for a week to let the smoke penetrate and mellow. You can eat it right from the smoker too.

I didn't take a photo, but in the last 6 hours I added a shelf of cheese (6 blocks) above the salmon for cold smoking.

seamster (author)2015-03-26

This looks excellent, and my mouth is watering. I love cold smoked salmon!

Steamcrunk (author)seamster2015-03-26

Thanks, we hope the family likes it on Easter Sunday!

mart33n33 (author)2015-03-26

Looks delicious! $52 a pound is a bit out of my reach. I love these guys that run a co-op in AK and freeze everything as soon as it hits the dock up there. $100 for five pounds of 6-8 ounce portions delivered.

Steamcrunk (author)mart33n332015-03-26

I need that Co-Op!

About This Instructable




Bio: I'm a crafty dude with a lot of tools, a head full of knowledge, and a lot of time at home as a Stay ... More »
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