Step 5: The Best Batch

I made another batch and packed it into a homemade rocket motor casing that had a nozzle made from kitty litter. I was impressed to see it actually worked! I think this rocket shot up a couple thousand feet.

If you haven't see the video yet, it's not too late.  Watch it here!

If you like this project perhaps you'll like some of my others. Check them out at www.thekingofrandom.com
Me and a friend are doing this for a science fair project, what will happen if we add another flammable acid?
Please tell me if it's safe
<p>@the king of random. Hey I love your work and I'm trying some of your projects. Is it possible for you to do something on homemade fireworks? Where i'm residing fireworks is ridiculously expensive and so i'd really like to build my own.</p>
<p>one thing The King of random I challenge you to make free energy.</p>
Can u tell me how to make rocket fuel WITHOUT KNO3 please
<p>You need some kind of oxidiser to make your rocket go. Potassium nitrate is probably the easiest to get. It isn't available at stores where I live (in Australia), but I don't think it's illegal, and friends have been able to get some online. Other than KNO3, NASA, ESA, and Roskosmos mostly used liquid oxygen, which us probably not possible to get without arousing suspicion as to why you want it.</p>
its pretty easy to get... look in garden center or online <br>
Sorry, but isn't the point of an Instructable to give instructions? This entry would be much more interesting if actual data was provided, e.g. at least state the units of ratio (&quot;weight&quot; for KNO3/sugar only appeared in the comments, nothing for the rust). <br>
If you read the whole instructable you would see that KNO3, Sugar and &quot;weight&quot; were actually all in the instructable, so I'm confused by your complaint. <br><br>For your convenience I added 1% to the statement about the rust.
when you say weight, would that be like if you used so many cups of KNO3 you would have to use so many cups of sugar?
That would be volume. Weight means how much they weigh on a scale. Eg. 1 lb of bricks vs 1 lb of feathers.
oh so if you had 1 pound of sugar you would need so many pounds of kno3?
seriously? they give you percentages. 40% sugar, 60% potassium nitrate. (stated in the video, and on page three) i dont mean to be rude but how hard is it to figure out four parts sugar to six parts stump remover? but, if you must, 1 lbs of sugar, equaling 40% of the weight, means the total weight is 2.5 lbs. which means 60% of the weight, stump remover, is 1.5 lbs.
Actually the atomic weight of potassium nitrate Is much light than a sugar compound therefore one part KNO3 is not equal to one part Sugar. This is why we use weight as a unit of measurement when working with chemicals.
<p>just take the percentage of how much you are mixing. For example, if you are making 2 cups of r-candy, what is 40% of 2? 60% of 2?</p>
<p>When mixing components always use weight...not volumn. So if you have one pound of sugar you need two pounds of potassium nitrate and 1.6 oz of sulfur.</p>
<p>عدي غالب</p>
<p>عدي غالب</p>
<p>Umm, he literally weighed it right in front of you. He used a kitchen scale and weighed it in grams. The percentage number was based on how many grams of each product were in each mix.</p>
I'm pretty sure the burn rate increases because oxygen is released from the iron oxide when it is heated and the increased oxygen increases the burn rate of the other ingredients. No additional exhaust gas is generated, but the created gas is released more rapidly, increasing the thrust. Since the thrust is proportional to the mass of the gas times the velocity squared, increasing the velocity is much more effective than increasing the mass. BTW, the iron oxideand aluminum mix is called Thermite, not termite. The burning mixture consumes oxygen, so does not give off gas. Iron powder may not contain any oxide, so must be oxidized. Perhaps soaking it in water and letting the water evaporate slowly will do it. I've also used potassium perchlorate as an oxidizer. This is very effective, but too much results in an explosion rather than a controlled gas release.
Yes the burn rate would increase due to the higher levels of oxygen due to the necessary ingredients to create thrust ( fuel + oxygen + chain reaction) also the more oxygen you have in the compound the higher surface area you will have for combustion.
Which one had the fastest burn-rate, was it 13syrup 30water 59KNO 30sugar? <br>
The mixture that burns the fastest would have the least fuel and a good catalyst (iron oxide - rust) therefore the 60/40 +1g rust would have the fastest burn rate.
<p>Is it possible for u to make a rocket fuel without KNO3? Use I g only kitchen items?</p>
<p>Step 1: Get Hydrogen Peroxide. Step 2: Distill the Hydrogen Peroxide. Step 3: Add silver dust to start the combustion. Note: this is liquid fuel and it will be harder to use but a lot more efficient </p>
Uhmm... no. Never distill hydrogen peroxide as it will readily combust violently with anything it comes into contact with. Unless of course you are an experienced chemist.
<p>I have about 30 cedar tree stumps to get rid of. I tried salt peter and sugar but it just blew the stick I used to plug hole with about 20 feet in the air. Any suggestions?</p>
Use about a quarter pound mixture (114 grams) and add charcoal (about 20 grams will do) but this time do not plug the hole as that creates a small deflagration
<p>Do you need to wear a mask when caramelizing them?</p>
Not unless you are melting the KNO3 first in which nitrogen dioxide would be a byproduct thus requiring a mask but since the sugar is only being melted in this instructable no mask is needed.
<p>I saw your other video where you use 3/4&quot; Schedule 40 PVC pipe, would a bigger pipe also work and may be able to sustain a heavier payload or 3/4 is the best option?</p>
I made a rocket propelled Longboard using this thought process: large inside diameter tubes (carbon steel) with a higher level of oxidation to provide a lot more thrust and then I also used a different kind of sugar called xylitol which has a different bond that is more suitable for larger engine bodies. this sugar is used in engines that are optimal for high altitude propulsion or heavy payload propulsion because it will not crack under pressure.
<p>Another (dumb) question: KNO3 by itself is not flammable (as far as I know) and sugar isn't either so why are they flammable only by mixing them? do they react chemically even if they are not diluted? (sorry, I didn't pay attention in HS chemistry)</p>
No problem, the reason that this compound is a strong candidate for a propellant is because the oxygen from KNO3 transfers over to the sugar to create carbon oxides and nitrogen oxides which act as the positive thrust which in turn push the rocket off the ground and then the heat created as a byproduct of the initial reaction starts a chain reaction within the rest of the compound.
<p>Sugar is flammable, and acts as the fuel. The KNO3 acts as the oxidizer and provides the oxygen needed to combust quickly. </p>
Is it possible to produve this rocket fuel on a larger scale? (E.g. about 10 pounds of it fuel) to blast a rocket into the sky?<br>
Yes although adding a higher oxidizing molecule like ammonium perchlorate or potassium permanganate would allow for a stronger overall thrust due to the heat created as as byproduct of the oxidizer reacting with the fuel.
<p>hey love all your videos :D is ammonium persulphate a suitable substitute for KNO3? It a little easier for me to get</p><p>Thanks</p>
you can try but I would think that it would either not work at all or the mixture would smoke out as the persulphate bond is too stable to cause a volatile chain reaction therefore we use nitrogen bonds because they are extremely unstable and are perfect for causing volatile chain reactions.
<p>What about using the KNO3 itself? Pure KNO3?</p>
No the KNO3 would not work by itself as it is an oxidizer and to have a successful bipropellant you would need a fuel ie. (sugar)
<p>Mix everything by weight. 30% sugar, 60%potassium nitrate and 10% sulfur for the best rocket fuel. Melt slowly and pour into tube. Nozzle should be 60 degrees entering side (converging) and 30 degrees leaving (diverging) and the hole should be 1/3 the dia. of the motor tube. Tubing should be seamless steel. Nozzle..cold rolled. Bulkhead...cold rolled. To give it an intitial pulse put a rod up through the nozzle about 1/3 the length of the motor. Pour the liquid propellant over this rod. Pull the rod out when cooled.</p>
<p>along with the rust being added to the mixture, you could also add powdered aluminum so that you get the a thermite reaction that happens at the same time as the other one. This will probably burn hotter, but it might not burn faster, you should give that a try though</p>
<p>will do man</p>
<p>omg it works i did it</p>
<p>what if i dont have KmNO4</p>
<p>could i use an electric model rocket starter to start it rather than a blowtorch?</p>
<p>could this be used as an actual rocket boster on a real life scale?</p>