Introduction: Making an ARC Welder - Part 2 of 2

How to convert scavenged microwave parts into a useful arc welding machine.  This is part 2 of 2, and focuses on the electrical system and finishing touches.

More projects at www.thekingofrandom.com

Before you watch this, make sure you've seen Part 1.

Step 1: Watch the Video!



WARNING: Stick welding, and/or the modification of a Microwave Oven Transformer (M.O.T), can be very dangerous and presents risks of UV radiation, shock hazards, burns, fires, fumes and a multitude of other risks.  This project should not be attempted without a thorough understanding of electricity, adult supervision and adequate training.  Misuse, or careless use, of tools or projects may result in serious injury and/or death.  Use of this content is at your own risk.

Step 2: Transformer Platform

I started this part of the project with a scrap piece of 3/4" birch I had left over from my "Router Table" project.

The measurements for the board were 7"x10", and that keeps this about as compact as practical.

I found a piece of 2x2 as well, and screwed it onto the center of the board about an inch from the edge.  

Two pilot holes were drilled in the top to accommodate our electrode lugs.  

I decided to use lugs here rather than keep it all one continuous cable, because it gives the option of changing out electrode cables, or easily modifying the electrical output for future projects.

Step 3: Making and Crimping Copper Lugs

Copper lugs can be pricy, but I found that if I used a 2" length of 1/2" copper tubing, I could make my own.

I used a bench vise to crimp 1" of the tubing completely flat, then drilled a hole in the flat piece.  

A belt sander helped to clean up the edges a bit to make it easier to handle, and make it look a bit nicer as well.

For the electrode cables, I used some of the 8awg cable left over from when we wound the transformer coils.

Next, I exposed the copper on the end of the cable, and bent it over so it would fit inside the lower part of the lug.

I flattened it with a bench vise to make a solid electrical connection, and in my testing, the connection doesn't come apart.

If you don't have a bench vise, I imagine a hammer could work with very similar results.  

Step 4: Connecting the Electrodes

Since the system is AC, there really is no "ground" connection and it doesn't really matter which cable connects to which side, but I decided to put a "ground" clamp on the left side, and the electrode holder on the right.

I also spliced the cable between the two transformers and connected them to a common lug so I could have the option to center tap the transformers for future projects, like powering an arc furnace for example.  

For the clamp, I found this metal one at the hardware store for only $0.99.  When the rubber tips were removed, it could conduct electricity.

I crimped a piece of copper tubing to the wire, then secured the tube to the clamp with a screw.  For being so cheap, the clamp had a surprising amount of clamping force, which was great for biting onto the workpiece.

I bought a replacement electrode holder for $13 rather than making my own.  It looked better and was much more practical for welding with.


Step 5: Wiring the Electrical System

I used one of the cords saved from one of the microwaves and cut off the green wire.

I secured the cable to the wood base to prevent the cables from pulling off the connections.

The black cable connects to one of the primary terminals on one of the transformers, and the white wire connects to one of the other transformers primaries.  It doesn't really matter which one.

I used another piece of wire to connect the other 2 posts together, essentially connecting the 2 transformers in series.

Later on, when the device is tested, the two electrodes should be outputting around 36 volts.  If you're seeing very low voltage, like 2.4 in my case, that means the transformers are canceling each other out, and this can be fixed by just switching the connections on one of the transformers.

I went ahead and did that and ended up with about 37 volts between my ground clip and electrode holder.

Step 6: 240 VAC

I needed 240 volts AC to power this system, so I used 2 plugs, a connector, and some 10awg wire.

Each of the outlets in my house output around 120 VAC, and the circuits all connect back to the breaker bus bars.  There are 2 busses, and I learned that if I took a hot line from each bus, the electrical potential between them was 240 VAC.

Rather than tapping into the breaker box directly, I used extension cords and connected to 2 different outlets that were 180 out of phase (on separate bus bars).

When they were connected to my adaptor, the result was 240 VAC.

It's important to keep in mind that this welder doesn't have an on/off switch, and no current limiting of it's own.  That's why I had to build a separate power controller I call the "Scariac".  It's like a "Variac" except much more dangerous.  But it is pretty cheap, and it gets the job done.

Look for how to build the Scariac in a different project.

Step 7: Setting the Current

To set the current for welding 1/16th rods, I connected the ground clamp and electrode holder together, effectively shorting out the system.  The Scariac has a loop of wire built in that allows me to monitor the primary current, and when it's set to about 15.5 amps on the primary, it gives me around 100 amps on the secondary.  

Cranking up the power on the Scariac can get the welding cables up over 200 amps, but I really don't recommend running them that high for more than a few seconds or the plastic coating on the cables will overheat and may start melting.

In any case, you can see there is certainly enough power for welding.

I burned ten 1/16 rods in a row, and the system was only warm to the touch.  This gives me the impression it's got a pretty good duty cycle for use with the smaller rods, and these are probably the only one's I'll really need for my hobby use anyway.  

Step 8: Finishing Touches

Rather than leaving all the terminals exposed, I picked up a plastic container, painted it black, and drilled a few holes for the cables.

I used the top as the base, and the bottom as the top.  It seemed to work pretty well.

There are also ventilation holes cut in the sides to allow airflow over the coils, and even consideration made for attaching a fan to blow cool air and help regulate the temperature while welding.

At this point, the system is completely finished and ready for welding!

You can see some of my first few experiences with the world of welding by clicking here.

Step 9: All Finished!

Well, there you have it!  A homemade AC stick welder.

If you haven't see the video yet, it's not too late.  Watch it here!

If you like this project perhaps you'll like some of my others. Check them out at www.thekingofrandom.com

Comments

author
4DIYers (author)2016-10-28

Wow that is quite impressive! I have experience in welding, those welds have definitely penetrated well and seem very clean. The overheating is quite normal on any welder, depending on their design, they have duty cycles. So they can only run for a certain period of time, then need a certain period to cool down. I would definitely like to see a variable controller added so you don't have to worry about burning through lighter gauge metal.

author
rust weems (author)2015-06-13

Hello. Kudos on your brilliant instructable. I am currently rounding up the parts for my own build. A problem that I encountered is that people are not very big on microwaves where I live, so they are near impossible to come by. Are there any alternatives to salvage the transformers from?

Thank you.

author
Di Immortales (author)2015-03-21

do you know where a good place to get microwaves are because I dont know where to get one

author
killer142 made it! (author)2014-04-07

This was a fun project !!

IMG_2167.JPG
author
Zenoah1 (author)2013-07-05

Really nice project!
I live in europe so we have 230/240 from our outlets, would it be possible to use just one MOT? or would the load on one MOT burn out way to quickly?

Jb

author
turtledrake (author)2013-05-19

Hey, love the project!
I'm just a little confused on this section here. Why can't you simply plug each transformer into an outlet individually?
Thanks
Evan

author
sconner1 (author)2013-04-26

I have to say I like most of your posts, but this one is a bit scary. I can see somebody connecting 2 hot leads together and shorting the house circuits.
Instead of wiring the primaries in series and risking one's home with very sketchy and easily mistaken connections, Simply make sure your windings are in phase with each other and wire the primaries in parallel at 120V and leave the secondaries in series. This should accomplish the same voltage without using the dangerous 2 outlet hack although this limits your amperage draw to 15 or 20A. OR wire up a proper connection to the 30 or 50A dryer or stove outlet. And for God's sake, Put fuses in your electrical primary circuits! Another good practice is to put the rig in a metal box and connect that safety ground wire to it. Be safe out there.

author
sconner1 (author)sconner12013-04-26

The dryer and stove are already 220V by the way.
The 3 prong dryer outlet has the 2 hots and ground.
A 4 prong stove outlet has 2 hots, a neutral (center tap) and ground.

author
Misac-kun (author)2013-04-26

I was wating for a ible like this from you for so long!

author
sscsnake (author)2013-04-25

I see you found out how the 240v and 120v systems in your breaker work. The 120v is just the center tap from the 240v. I was wondering why you decided to run the system off of 240v instead of 120v? You could have ran the transformers in parallel with each other and had gotten the same result with half as much voltage. Then you could have ran each transformer separately or have used the center tap. I'm not trying to dis your project or anything but thats how I would have hooked it up. But what do I know, I'm only 15. I still have alot to learn. Are there any advantages to 240v besides half the amps?

author
eleechapin (author)2013-04-25

Wow!!! Nice job!

author
Bobblehead Einstein (author)2013-04-25

Perfection as alway's......can't wait for the scariac video to come up

author
pfred2 (author)2013-04-25

You should make a metal enclosure for your welder with your welder. Metal holds up better to sparks than plastic does. I'd probably ditch that kindling you attached your transformers to also. Now you should see if you can rectify your welder. DC welding is a lot nicer than AC. Then you need to make an arc starting circuit because that is nice to have too. My Miller goes up to 200 amps and the power cord on it is the diameter of a garden hose. Just something to think about there.

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