In this Instructable, you will learn how to:

- generate images with math (contour plot type),
- define colors,
- generate an animation,
- let images interact with the user.
- You will also learn elements of the
*Processing*programming language.

**This Instructable is to be viewed from a web browser, as the apps do not handle the animated GIFs.**I hope you will enjoy the examples, get an idea of the endless possibilities, and of course, try it, and share your results!

## Step 1: Get and Start the Software

Visit this link.

__Firefox and Chrome work best. Safari does not work well for saving files. Internet Explorer needs more testings...__

Find some bug? just PM me!

You should then see the page as represented in the picture of this step.

area: where to write your formula, or paste formulas copied from the next steps.*Formula*area: where your image or animation will appear.**Canvas**section: offers various ways of saving your work, and will be covered in one of the last steps.*Save and Export*

## Step 2: Formula Basics

### For the impatient ones

Get your *MathVision.html* page up and running as described before. Skip the rest of this step and copy-paste the formula code blocks of the next steps into the Formula box, to try them.

### Creating Formulas

*MathVision.html* is based on Processing.js, which is a particular implementation of Processing, to run in a web browser. The syntax is hence a simplified flavor of the Java programming language.

You will need to learn three things:

- Assigning values, like
*WIDTH = 300;* - Using functions, like
,**color(...)**,**dist(...)****cos(...)** - Defining the
function*rgb(...)*

A typical formula consists of two parts:

__Part 1: Defining the parameters__

WIDTH = 300; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = -16; X_MAX = 16; Y_MIN = -16; Y_MAX = 16;These parameters determine the image size in pixels, its size proportion, and the

*x*and

*y*ranges. Click

**[Show/hide formula usage]**to get a list of possible parameters.

__Part 2: Defining the rgb() function__

color rgb(x, y) { return color(x*x+y*y); }Simply put, the

**function defines the color for a pixel at a given**

*rgb()**(x, y)*coordinate.

__Comments__

Comments are prefixed by a double slash

*. In the next steps, I insert comments in the formula to mark locations deserving explanations. Comments are just ignored when the formula is executed.*

**//**// this is a comment

__Variables__

int a = 234; float b = cos(PI/3);Variables are storages to receive temporary work values. Usual types are integers (

**) and floating-point numbers (**

*int***).**

*float*In the above example, we have created a variable named

**, of integer type, initialized with**

*a***. Then we have created a variable named**

*234***,of floating point type, and initialized with the cosine of π/3.**

*b*__Calling functions__

You will likely use math functions, see http://processingjs.org/reference/ and look for the

*Math*group.

__Running your formula__

Once you have either pasted a formula into the entry box, or created and typed your own one, click the

**Run**button below the entry area.

It is easy to make syntax errors. In such a case, after clicking

**Run**,

*MathVision*will alert you by a message box. Unfortunately, the alert message may not be very obvious to locate the issue.

__Save your work periodically__

Define a base name for your exports and saves. Save your work by clicking

**Save Formula as...**

## Step 3: Basics - Stripes

First let's start with a simple example: vertical stripes. For this, we will only consider the *x* coordinate.

Run MathVision.html in another tab of your browser, and copy-paste the sample formulas that you will find below.

### Formula

WIDTH = 200; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = 0; X_MAX = 10; Y_MIN = 0; Y_MAX = 10; color rgb(x, y) { int value = (int)x % 2; // (a) int luma = value * 255; // (b) return color(luma); // (c) }

### Explanation

(a) We take the integral part of *x* (the ** (int)x** here), and determine whether it is odd or even (the

**means modulo 2). This yields a value that is either 0 or 1.**

*% 2*(b) We multiply the value by 255 to obtain a greyscale luma number (from 0 to 255). Because

**is either 0 or 1,**

*value***will be either 0 or 255 here.**

*luma*(c) We return a greyscale color, by calling the

**function with only one parameter.**

*color()*### Exercises

- Make diagonal stripes. Hint: use also
*y*.

## Step 4: Basics - Checkerboard

This is quite similar to the previous step, but this time, *y* is also considered.

### Formula

WIDTH = 200; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = 0; X_MAX = 10; Y_MIN = 0; Y_MAX = 10; color rgb(x, y) { float value = (int)x % 2 == (int)y % 2; // (a) float luma = value * 255; // (b) return color(luma); // (c) }

### Explanation

(a) In the previous step, we have seen how to determine whether *x* is even or odd. Now we do the same for *x* and *y*, and compare (the ** ==** operator) if they are equally odd or even. The result is either 0 or 1.

* - Then, it is exactly like in the previous step:* -

(b) We multiply the value by 255 to obtain a greyscale luma number (0 to 255). Because ** value** is either 0 or 1,

**will be either 0 or 255 here.**

*luma*(c) We return a greyscale color, by calling the

**function with only one parameter.**

*color()*### Exercises

- Make larger squares.
- Make black and red squares. Hint: use
.*color(luma, 0, 0)* - Make red and white squares.

## Step 5: Basics - Spiral

Now let's draws a spiral.

### Formula

WIDTH = 250; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = -1; X_MAX = 1; Y_MIN = -1; Y_MAX = 1; color rgb(x, y) { float radius = dist(x, y, 0, 0); // (a) Cartesian to polar float angle = atan2(x, y); // (a) Cartesian to polar float value = angle*3 - log(radius)*12; // (b) the spiral float stripe = cos(value); // (c) the smooth stripes float luma = (stripe + 1) * 127; // (d) map to luma range return color(luma); }

### Explanation

(a) Convert Cartesian coordinates (*x*,*y*) to polar coordinates (** angle**,

**).**

*radius*(b) Determine the color by using the angle and the logarithm of the radius.

(c) Apply a cosine in order to generate smooth greyscale stripes.

(d) Map stripe (-1 to 1) to luma range (0 to 255).

Note:

You can also generate black and white (instead of greyscaled) stripes by replacing the two lines (c) and (d) by this single one:* float luma = cos(value)>0 ? 0 : 255;*

Then, notice how the stripes borders are jagged. Not so nice, so let's stick with greyscales!

### Exercises

- Make the spiral turn in opposite direction.

## Step 6: Basics - Colors

There are two very common ways of defining a color: the ** RGB** and

**models. The two are supported by**

*HSB**MathVision*, and their usage is described in this step.

### RGB Model

With the so-called RGB model, a color is defined by its __R__ed, __G__reen and __B__lue components.

To use the RGB color model, you shall define your formula as ** rgb(x,y)** or

**.**

*rgb(x,y,t)*In the previous steps, remember that your

**function used**

*rgb***with one single argument, to produce black and white or gray scales. Now, for color output, you should call**

*color(luma)***with three arguments:**

*rgb***. Each argument should range from 0 to 255.**

*color(red,green,blue)*is primary red,*color(255,0,0)*is primary green,*color(0,255,0)*is primary blue;*color(0,0,255)*is black,*color(0,0,0)*is white;*color(255,255,255)*is dark red.**color(127,0,0)**

**Formula 1 (RGB)**

WIDTH = 250; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = 0; X_MAX = 255; Y_MIN = 0; Y_MAX = 255; color rgb(x, y) { int radius = 80; int d1 = dist(x, y, 80, 175); int d2 = dist(x, y, 175, 175); int d3 = dist(x, y, 127, 80); int r = d1 < radius ? 255 : 0; int g = d2 < radius ? 255 : 0; int b = d3 < radius ? 255 : 0; return color(r, g, b); }The above formula generates the first image of this step.

- For the red circle, we have full-red contribution (255) if we are inside a circle centered at x=80 and y=175, otherwise we have 0.
- Similar for green and blue, with different centers.
- If we are outside any circle,
,*r*and*g*are all zero; we get black, because*b*is black.*color(0, 0, 0)*

**Formula 2 (RGB)**

WIDTH = 250; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = 0; X_MAX = 255; Y_MIN = 0; Y_MAX = 255; color rgb(x, y) { int radius = 80; int d1 = dist(x, y, 80, 175); int d2 = dist(x, y, 175, 175); int d3 = dist(x, y, 127, 80); int r = d1 < radius ? 255 : 0; int g = d2 < radius ? 255 : 0; int b = d3 < radius ? 255 : 0; return r+g+b ? color(r, g, b) : color(255); }The above formula is similar to the previous one, with this change in the last line:

- If all components are zero (i.e.
is zero) then we are outside any circle, and we return*r+g+b*which is white (and which is the same as*color(255)*);*color(255,255,255)* - otherwise. return
as before.**color(r,g,b)**

### HSB Model

For the HSB model, instead of using red, green and blue components, a color is defined by three other kind of arguments:

- H, the hue -- the pure color in the range of possible colors: 0=red, 150=blue;
- S, the saturation -- how the color is vivid or faded: 50=pastel, 255=vivid;
- B, the brightness: 50=dark, 255=lightest.

**Formula 3 (HSB)**

WIDTH = 250; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = 0; X_MAX = 255; Y_MIN = 0; Y_MAX = 255; color hsb(x, y) { int radius = 80; int b = dist(x, y, 127, 127) < 80 ? 64 : 255; return color(x, y, b); }In the above formula, which yields the third picture of this step, we do the following:

- Vary the hue with x (horizontally), and the saturation with y (vertically). The top of the picture is vivid, whereas the bottom is so faded that it becomes white.
- In addition, we darken a disc centered at the middle of the image at (127,127); if we are outside the disk, we set b to 255 (full brightness), otherwise to 64 (quite dark).

## Step 7: Basics - Animated Spiral

(link to HTML5 animated version)

So far so good, but weren't animated GIF images promised in the intro?

For animation, there are three new ingredients:

: the time value. You just have to add*t*to the arguments of*t*or*rgb()*. Then of course,*hsb()*shall be used smartly in the formula.*t*the time leap between each frame.*TIME_INCREMENT:*: the number of frames for the animated GIF. If you don't want to export as animated GIF, you may leave that out.**FRAMES**

### Formula

TIME_INCREMENT = 0.2; // (a) FRAMES = 10; // (b) FRAMES = TWO_PI / TIME_INCREMENT / 3; // (b2) OUT_PAUSE = false; WIDTH = 250; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = -1; X_MAX = 1; Y_MIN = -1; Y_MAX = 1; color rgb(x, y, t) { // (c) float radius = dist(x, y, 0, 0); float angle = -atan2(x, y); angle = angle + t; // (d) float value = angle*3 - log(radius)*12; float stripe = cos(value); float luma = (stripe + 1) * 127; return color(luma); }The non-animated spiral was explained in the previous tutorial. We will here only cover the modifications necessary to generate an animation.

- (a)
defines the time increment, i.e. how the time varies from one frame to the next one.*TIME_INCREMENT* - (b)
defines the number of frames that we want to pack into the animation file (anim GIF). The number really depends on your formula. It shall be chosen so that the transition between the last frame and the first frame is smooth. Here in (b2), we compute it to take the*FRAMES*into account (the smaller the increment, the more the number of frames).*TIME_INCREMENT* - (c) The
function is declared here with the*rgb()*argument. This states that we want an animation. The*t*function will be called with various values of t, starting from 0, and incremented with*rgb()*at each new frame.*TIME_INCREMENT* - (d) In this formula, this is how we decided to use
. Here,*t*is added to the angle, making the whole spiral spin with the time.*t*

### Exercises

- Make the spiral spin in the opposite direction.
- Make the spiral spin faster or slowlyer.

## Step 8: Basics - User Interaction

Now, the following formula will render a spot following the mouse, and colored after the *x* position. This is a simple form of user interaction.

Note: To experience the interactivity, follow http://www.openprocessing.org/sketch/138963

### Formula

WIDTH = 250; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = -20; X_MAX = 20; Y_MIN = -20; Y_MAX = 20; MOUSE_MOVE = true; // (a) color hsb(x, y) { float d = dist(u, v, mouseX, mouseY) / WIDTH * 10; // (b) float shift = mouseX / WIDTH; // (c) float bright = (1/d) * 255; // (d) float hue = shift * 255; // (e) return color(hue, 255, bright); // (f) }

### Explanation

- (a) Setting
to true will insure to redraw upon any mouse move.*MOUSE_MOVE* - (b) We calculate the distance of the current pixel to the mouse. Instead of
and*x*,*y*and*u*are used, as they represent the pixel coordinate.*v*is used to normalize and be independent of the actual canvas size. The value 10 controls the size of the spot.*WIDTH* - (c) The color shift is proportional to the mouse horizontal position
.*mouseX*is used so that shift ranges from 0 to 1.*WIDTH* - (d) The brightness will be maximal under the mouse, and will tend to zero for pixels away from the mouse.
- (e) For the hue, we scale the color shift, to range between 0 and 255.
- (f) We create the pixel color by using the computed hue, brightness, and a maximal saturation (255, for strong colors).

Notes:

- To draw simple flat shapes following the mouse,
*MathVision*is far less efficient than the usual graphics primitives of*Processing.js*. This is because*MathVision*recomputes each pixel (applying the formula to each one) for every redraw of the canvas. - On the other hand, effects, such as the halo you can see here, are very easily obtained.

## Step 9: Advanced - Animated Water

(link to HTML5 animated version)

From now on, I will offer you some more complex formulas, with not much detailed explanations -- artistic results often come with lots of tweakings. You can study them and spot some comments within.

This one produces wave effects on the water.

### Formula

WIDTH = 200; float RATIO = 1; TIME_INCREMENT = .08; OUT_PAUSE = false; X_MIN = 0; X_MAX = 30; Y_MIN = 0; Y_MAX = 30; float wave(x, y, fx, fy, a, vx, vy) { return sin((x+2*sin(y*fx*3))*fx + t*vx) * sin(y*fy + t*vy) * a; } float dx, dy; bool preDraw(t) { dx = pow(sin(t/20), 2)/3; dy = pow(cos(t/20), 2)/3; return true; } color rgb(x, y, t) { float value = 0; // fx fy a vx vy value += wave(x, y, 0.20, 0.10, 0.4, dx , dy ); value += wave(x, y, 0.31, 0.31, 0.4, 0.2, 0.2); value += wave(x, y, 0.09, 0.07, 0.4, 0.2, 0.2); value = sin(value*7); value = pow(value*value, .1); float normed = value*255; return color(24, 255-normed/2, 255); }

### Notes

- Did you notice the
function? It is called, if defined, before each frame. It allows to compute variables that do change over frames, and not over pixels. And hence, to do the computation once per frame instead of redoing it uselessly for each pixel.*preDraw()* - The function
is an arbitrarily named function, that we call several times per pixel, with different arguments.**wave()**

## Step 10: Advanced: - Animated Nautilus

(link to HTML5 animated version)

This is one of my favorites. Making the spiral was easy (as seen in previous steps), but making the chambers divisions was a real challenge.

### Formula

OUT_PAUSE = false; FIRST_FRAME_TIME = PI/4; WIDTH = 250; RATIO = 1; TIME_INCREMENT = 0.02; X_MIN = -6; X_MAX = 6; Y_MIN = -6; Y_MAX = 6; FRAMES = PI / TIME_INCREMENT; color rgb(x, y, t) { float radius = dist(x, y, 0, 0); // cartesian to polar float angle = atan2(x, y); // cartesian to polar float sint = sin(t); if(sint<0) { // for negative pitch, have sint positive and negate angle sint = -sint; angle = -angle; } float lrad = log(radius) * 4 * sint; float spiral = cos(angle/2 + lrad); float divisions = spiral > 0 ? sin(sin(angle*4 + sint * lrad * sin(angle/2+lrad - PI/4)/8)*PI/2) : -sin(sin(angle*4 - sint * lrad * sin(angle/2+lrad - PI/4)/8)*PI/2 + PI); float value = spiral * divisions; value = pow(value*value, .05); // make lines thinner float luma = value * 255; return color(luma); }

## Step 11: Advanced - Animated Fabric Rolls

Another crazy one... It is the ** distort** variable which is giving the depth effect.

For best animation colors, please visit http://www.openprocessing.org/sketch/126463

### Formula

FRAMES = 40; WIDTH = 250; X_MIN = -TWO_PI; X_MAX = TWO_PI; Y_MIN = -TWO_PI; Y_MAX = TWO_PI; RATIO = AUTO; TIME_INCREMENT = PI/2; OUT_PAUSE = false; void preSetup() { colorMode(HSB, 255); } color rgb(x, y, t) { float xx, yy; xx = x - y/4; yy = y + x/4; if(xx==0) return color(0); if(xx<0) { xx = -xx; yy = yy; } else { xx = xx*2; yy = yy*2; } float distort = 1 - 1/exp(xx*3); float tt = xx<0 ? t : t*2; xx = cos(xx + distort + tt/10); yy = sin(yy + distort + tt/20); float value = pow(xx+yy, 6)*2; value = value > 1 ? 1 : value; float luma = value * 255 * distort; return color(u/width*100, 200, luma); }

## Step 12: Advanced - Animated Flowers

(link to HTML5 animated version)

For best results when aiming at exporting an animated GIF, you should generate as few different hues (colors) as possible, otherwise the GIF encoder will have troubles building a good color palette.

In this example, the statement ** (int)(value/127) * 127** is here to limit the color resolution.

### Formula

FRAMES = 20; WIDTH = 150; RATIO = 1; X_MIN = -2; X_MAX = 2; Y_MIN = -2; Y_MAX = 2; TIME_INCREMENT = PI/10; OUT_PAUSE = false; float flower(x, y, t, n, k1, k2) { float radius = dist(x, y, 0, 0)/k1; // cartesian to polar float angle = atan2(x, y) + t*k2; // cartesian to polar; turns with time float value = sin(angle*n)-radius + pow(radius, exponent); value = min(255, max(0, (1+value) * 127)); return (int)(value/127) * 127; } float exponent; bool preDraw(t) { exponent = cos(t); return true; } color rgb(x,y,t) { float r = flower(x+1, y+1, t, 6, 0.5, -1); float g = flower(x+0.5, y-0.20, t, 5, 0.7, .2); float b = flower(x-1, y-1, t, 21, 0.5, .5); return color(255-r, 255-g, 255-b); }

## Step 13: Crazy - Alien Sky and Road

This formula generates a perspective dotted sky and road.

Note: To experience the interactivity, and get the best colors, definitely follow http://www.openprocessing.org/sketch/138961. Moving the mouse up and down changes the color; moving horizontally changes the perspective angle.

### Formula

WIDTH = 300; X_MIN = -1; X_MAX = 1; Y_MIN = 0.5; Y_MAX = -0.5; RATIO = 2; TIME_INCREMENT = 0.5; OUT_PAUSE = false; FRAMES = TWO_PI / TIME_INCREMENT; color hsb(x, y, t) { if(y==0) return color(0); // avoid zero-divide ay = abs(y); float direction = ((mouseX - WIDTH/2) / WIDTH) * TWO_PI; float val = cos(1/ay+t) * cos(x/ay - direction); // perspective spots raster val = 1 - pow(val,4); // increase contrast val *= y/Y_SPAN*2; // fade horizon to avoid moiree float band = sq(1/(x/ay - direction)); // V mask for central band float color_shift = mouseY/height; // H offset // pack all into HSV float h = 1+sin(val/2) + color_shift; float s = 3; float v = y<0 ? 3:band; return color(h*85, s*85, v*85); }

## Step 14: Fractals

This is an interactive fractal: Moving the mouse horizontally over the image will change the fractal depth.

To experience the interactivity, follow http://www.openprocessing.org/sketch/138956

### Formula

WIDTH = 700; X_MIN = 0; X_MAX = 1; Y_MIN = 0; Y_MAX = 1; RATIO = AUTO; MOUSE_MOVE = true; // recursion // --------- int sierpinski(u, v, w, h, depth, maxdepth) { int val = ((int)(u/w * 3) % 2) * ((int)(v/h * 3) % 2); if(val==0 && depth<maxdepth) { return sierpinski((u*3 % w)/3, (v*3 % h)/3, w/3, h/3, depth+1, maxdepth); } else return val; } // start the computation and convert 0/1 to color // ---------------------------------------------- color rgb(x, y) { return color(sierpinski(x,y,X_SPAN,Y_SPAN, 1, maxdepth) * 255); } // redraw only on effective maxdepth change // ---------------------------------------- int maxdepth = -1; bool preDraw(t) { int d = (int)(mouseX/width*6) +1; bool doit = maxdepth!=d; maxdepth = d; return doit; }

## Step 15: Exporting Your Work

*MathVision*offers the following exporting possibilities:

__Formula__

Text file containing the formula text (= your design work). You can load such files by clicking **Load formula from text file**.

__Image__

Image of the current canvas state. Gets loaded in another browser window or tab; then it is up to you to save it (e.g. as .PNG) using your browser (*Save page as...*)

__Animated GIF__

For formulas designed for animation, compute all frames, and load the resulting animated image in another browser window or tab; then it is up to you to save it (as .GIF) using your browser (Save page as...)

__Processing sketch__

A sketch that you can use in http://www.openprocessing.org. Formulas designed for animation yield animated sketches; user mouse interaction is supported.

__HTML page__

An HTML5 page that is standalone and full-featured: formulas designed for animation are animated; user mouse interaction is supported.

### Thank you for reading. Now try *MathVision*, and post your work!

Create formulas, export static or animated images, and post them along with your formula code!

Visit this link to run *MathVision*.

Visit this link on Github for more information.