Over 1.5 billion people in the world have no access to electricity. That means 1 out of 5 people are forced to live without something that a majority of the world takes for granted everyday! Without electricity, these people are unable to refrigerate food/medicine, have a guaranteed light source, or even have access to safe heating methods. In fact, according to a joint report of the United Nations Development Program and the World Health Organization report, 2 million people die unnecessarily each year due to inhaling the indoor smoke caused from burning coal, crop residue, wood, and even dung for heating and cooking purposes. This is precisely the reason why we want to change this. Our goal is to find an easy and affordable method to supply energy to these 1.5 billion people. We hope to mainly use items that would be accessible or could be easily supplied to persons in need.
Lack of electricity in many less developed countries prompted us to perform this project to submit to the Google Science Fair. We created a microbial fuel cell (MFC) using easily accessible and cheap materials. The MFC utilized waste water and lactobacillus to create hydrogen peroxide, which when forced through a proton exchange membrane, created electricity cleanly and cheaply. The proton exchange membrane separated the hydrogen peroxide molecules and allowed only hydrogen ions to pass. Free electrons went through a carbon rod anode and was utilized as electricity.
The MFC was set up in a garage and used for 5 days. A multimeter was attached to the anode and cathodes in order to test and record the electrical output of the MFC. The MFC consisted of an anode and cathode chamber. The anode chamber was filled with 'waste water' or dirty pond water, and yogurt containing lactobacillus. It was attached to the cathode chamber using PVC segments with the proton exchange membrane in it. The cathode chamber was then filled with tap water and a phosphate buffer to maintain pH levels. Our results demonstrated the potential effectiveness of MFCs. Additional funding, research and investigation would allow for greater practicality in developing nations.