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Picture of Mini Staple Sailplane
Mini Staple Sailplane 023.JPG
This instructable, inspired by the proliferation of micro-sized paper airplanes, contains instructions for building a miniature sailplane out of paper and a staple. It has a fuselage measuring 40 millimeters, a wingspan of 60 millimeters, and a height of 7 millimeters. Despite its small size, it has surprisingly good aerodynamics, which is due to the fact that it shares similar dimensions and attributes with full-size sailplanes. This includes:

- High aspect-ratio (long and thin) wings for increased lift with less induced drag
- Slender and streamlined fuselage for less drag
- T-tail empennage/stabilizers for effective pitch and yaw stability
- Dihedral for roll stability

Due to these attributes, this small glider can glide for substantial distances, perform tight aerobatics, and even gain some altitude on thermals created from heaters.

Much effort, time, and prototyping has been done on this design to ensure that it is easy to build, easy to trim, and flies well. If there is any flaw or area that could use improvement, do not hesitate to put recommendations in the comments section. In addition, I have designs for smaller and more complicated paper gliders, and these can be made into instructables upon community request ;-).
 
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Step 1: Materials

Picture of Materials
1) Paper
- Most paper or post-its will work.
- The piece should be at least 4x6 centimeters.
- The piece should also have about the same thickness and weight of computer paper.

2) Stapler
- Use standard staples. They are approximately 1.5 centimeters in length.

3) Scissors
- Use a small, sharp pair.

4) Metric Ruler
- Small, clear rulers work the best for this project.

5) Pencil
- Mechanical pencils or a well-sharpened wood pencil is ideal.

Step 2: Fold Paper in Half

Picture of Fold Paper in Half
Fold the piece of paper you will be using in half. If you are using a Post-it Note, fold the two sticky sides together. This will hold the sides steady during the next steps.

Step 3: Draw the Design

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Mini Staple Sailplane 011.JPG
Draw the design onto the piece of paper using the template provided. Make sure to be as accurate as possible and ensure that bottom of the fuselage is touching the folded side of the paper. Also make sure NOT to draw the design over the sticky portions of the Post-it Note if you are using one. The dashed lines indicate folds. CameronSS has created a PDF of the plan that can be printed out and attached to the sheet of paper being used. Thanks again, CameronSS!

Step 4: Add the Staple

Picture of Add the Staple
Carefully add the staple to the design as indicated. The staple functions as a nose ballast to shift the aircraft's center of gravity forward. Make sure it is centered in the space provided. If not, remove it and insert another staple in the correct position. It is recommended to test the stapler on scrap paper to determine the exact location of the staples.

Step 5: Cut Out the Design

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Carefully cut out the design. Ensure not to slice off the wings, cut too deep, or leave excess paper on the cutout. Also, it is important to make sure that the paper is perfectly flat to ensure symmetry of both sides. Any folds or curves on either side will result in an asymmetrical glider that will not fly. Discard the excess paper.

Step 6: Fold the Wings Down

Picture of Fold the Wings Down
Fold the wings down as indicated by the dashed lines. Again, be as accurate as possible.

Step 7: Add Camber

Picture of Add Camber
In order for the glider to fly well, you must add camber. Camber creates Bernoullian lift (lift formed by the pressure difference between the top and bottom of the wings) as well as strengthening the wings. Pinch the leading edge and the trailing edge of the wings to add camber. The max camber should be about half of a millimeter and be located halfway across the chord of the wing (NACA 7500). Make sure to apply the same camber for the entire wingspan.

Step 8: Add Up Elevator

Picture of Add Up Elevator
This next step is extremely important in ensuring that the glider will fly. Bend the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer about one-fourth of a millimeter higher than the leading edge. This produces a positive angle of attack that points the wings upward in relation to the air around it. It is this angle between the wings and the "relative wind" that produces the majority of lift, and without it, the glider will not fly. The measurement is only approximate as you will have to adjust it later on.

Step 9: Add Dihedral

Picture of Add Dihedral
Mini Staple Sailplane 021.JPG
Bend both wings upward until the wingtips are even with the top of the vertical stabilizer. Make sure both wings have the same dihedral and that the camber was applied evenly. In addition, ensure even up-elevator on the horizontal stabilizer and that the fuselage and the vertical stabilizer are straight and without warps.

Step 10: Trim and Fly!

Picture of Trim and Fly!
Now its time to enjoy your hard work! Grab your glider by the fuselage and give it a very light toss. Note the direction of flight. If the glider dives, add more up elevator and decrease the dihedral. If the glider pulls up and stalls, decrease the up elevator and increase the dihedral. If the glider curves or spirals in one direction, curl the vertical stabilizer opposite to the direction it turns. If it still spirals, reduce the dihedral of the main wing. Keep repeating the process until the glider flies in the desired direction. If you need help, watch the videos below.

Youtube Video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e--ra5zWHgA

Step 11: Decorate the Glider

Picture of Decorate the Glider
Mini Staple Sailplane 030.JPG
To turn the glider into a scale model of a real-life sailplane, draw details on the glider, such as a canopy, wingtip stripes, and tail numbers using permanent marker and/or pens. For working control surfaces, cut slits into the wings and outline with a pen. These can be used to trim the glider or perform aerobatics. When adding details, be careful not to add too much weight or alter the shape of the glider substantially. A detailed glider always looks better when it flies :-).

Step 12: Inspiration

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This instructable was inspired by many of the micro paper airplane designs on instructables and the internet. Here is a list of great miniature paper airplanes that I would like to give credit to:

Instructables:

How To Make The Scout Paper Airplane
by Origami Air Enforcer
- Interesting design with an elevated wing for enhanced maneuverability.

How To Make The Tomahawk Paper Airplane
by Origami Air Enforces
- More rugged version of the Scout. Has inverted vertical stabilizers that double as landing skids.

Mini Glider
by DhanushkaYT
- Another great design for a small paper glider. Has sailplane elements, but uses a V-tail.

Micro (or Mini) Aircraft
by rimar2000
- Perhaps the smallest paper glider on Instructables.

Websites:

Northern Stripe's Micro Paper Plane Site
- This is a Japanese site with some incredible glider and rubber-band planes. A must see!

Post-it Note Paper Airplane
- Small and simple design that uses a Post-it Note.

Taoistflyer's Sub Micro Paper Airplanes
- Taoistflyer has created some excellent scale paper aircraft that look great and fly even better.


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GofishRC0072 years ago
sweet idea,cool ible, but I took it to the next level by going "pro" added heat-shrinked to the front added tape for support and colored it.I even made my own box!
stuff 025.jpgstuff 026.jpg
That is so cute (:

This is amazing!!!!! (although mine did not really fly far, it turns right after a meter or something and it will land) Please make more cool paper plane tutorials, I really like making stuff like this......

PhilippeG16 months ago

great, ible perfect

pgamage made it!7 months ago
great...!!! :D worked fine.. bt didnt fly for long...
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cute

ketan.jeet.3310 months ago

nice

zephyr141 year ago
Maybe you could lower the wing position to maybe mid wing or bottom wing and create a flair on the ends where the control surfaces are (wings and tail plane)
Plus a fuselage like a jet would make it more aerodynamic therefore faster

Awesome job
It's really awesome!!! It flies really well! Good job. I accidentally put the wings on backwards but it still works
oidion231232 years ago
the glider kept turning right after flying straight for about 1.5 meters and I can't figure out which wing or elevator to tweak. Any ideas?
pmet (author)  oidion231232 years ago
Bend the rudder left and it should flight straight. It is the little vertical surface in the back.
https://missions.capnhq.gov/ops/DOT/school/L23CockpitFam/images/rudder.jpg
oidion231232 years ago
drooling...can't wait to make it....hope I don't mess it up.....but then, you can never tell with post its.
RAYMOND VON2 years ago
WOW I NEED MAKE IT
headdead3 years ago
Thanks so much for what I consider the best written Instructable I have ever read.
And the plane design is outstanding as well.

Ever thought about designing a mico-Post-It helicopter-ish device?

Headdead
Would this and/or this be the type of micro-helicopter you had in mind? :?
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RSV263 years ago
please do the F22 RAPTOR!!!!!!!!!
m1n1j1mmy3 years ago
top right - is that whtie one an X-Wing??
RSV26 m1n1j1mmy3 years ago
yes
RSV263 years ago
why not try one like this ??? ( i made a instructable for it )
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DrakerDG4 years ago
Very nice work,

I want to attempt it!
pmet (author)  DrakerDG4 years ago
Tell me how it goes! If there are any problems, please also let me know.
can some one tell me how to fly it
can some one tell me how to fly it
i can't make it fly will
sonofbelial3 years ago
With a 1280x1024 screen resolution, save the template image into mspaint and reduce the horizonat and vertical size by 38%. Print. Now you have the exact template size.
cj86753 years ago
just print out the template and fold it in half on the line
cj86754 years ago
cool!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
da_man00074 years ago
thank you verry much i am just wondering how did you come up with the idea??
pmet (author)  da_man00074 years ago
I used to make really small paper planes, but needed tape/glue to hold them together. One day I used a staple, and it worked really well :)
Excellent... :) :)
jmcglue4 years ago
i threw it out my window and it glided for adges and then it hit a puddle :(
poor guy :(
Is it okay to use a 0.5mm pen, or do I HAVE to use a sharp pencil?
pmet (author)  LaffyDuck1874 years ago
as long as the lines you draw are accurate, you can use any writing utensil.
gtinnapob4 years ago
very small i even can't throw it
pmet (author)  gtinnapob4 years ago
Just put it in the palm of your hand and launch it upward. Works every time :)
lou14584 years ago
Concur with the wingtip post below. I'd say 50% better range and stability. Cut's down on the tendency to loop or spiral.
If the plane loops/spirals, just bend the little piece of paper in front of the staple in the direction you want the plane to go(opposite direction of the spiral). It works!
pmet (author)  lou14584 years ago
I've also tried the wingtips and have had good results. I'll try to incorporate wingtips in future models.
Best Boredom Buster ever!
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