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Montreal Bagels

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The perfect crispy on the outside, chewy on the inside, cavernous, yet dense, boiled and baked bagel is as elusive as any other "holy grail" food item.  Coveted by many, perfected by few, the ability to bake a delicious bagel is truly an art form.  After hanging out with Blake and Amy from Beauty's Bagel Shop in Oakland, CA for a few mornings to watch how they make their delicious Montreal style, wood fired bagels, I have learned a whole lot about the process from watching the pros and am excited to share it with everyone here in this Instructable.

Before we get on with the show, let's take a brief moment to learn some bagel history.

Although wildly popular as a breakfast item now, the bagel was if not invented, then at least first mentioned in Krakow, Poland in 1610 as a baked gift to give to women in childbirth. It is not clear whether the bagel was a symbol of fertility, or simply a tasty object for the woman to bite down upon in labor.  A rival creation story tells of a Viennese baker who created the bagel in 1683 to honor the Polish King Jan III Sobieski for saving Austria from the Turks. The Baker molded the roll into the shape we now know and love into a stirrup (German for stirrup: beugel) to symbolize the King’s passion for horses.  However, the childbirth story from Krakow pre-dates this event and is believed to be the actual beginning of the bagel. 

No matter what it's history, bagels are a delicious baked good that's been around since the 17th century and can be made by following these specific steps, either in the professional kitchen, or at home.
 
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Step 1: Beauty's Bagel Shop

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There are three things (ok, maybe more) that an east coaster misses when they make the pilgrimage west: a decent slice of pizza, warm summer nights, and good bagel. I have found that Arinell’s Pizza in the SF Bay Area scratches the itch for a good NY slice, and the west coast may never have warm summer nights (but we don’t have the brutal humidity either), but bagels have always been missing, until now. 

A hybridized New York and Montreal Style bagel has finally made it west! In late 2012, Blake Joffe and Amy Remsen opened Beauty’s Bagel Shop in Oakland, CA after moving from Philadelphia, PA in 2009 to satisfy the good bagel cravings of the East Bay.

Blake and Amy were nice enough to let me, and therefore Instructables document their careful and exacting bagel making process for us to share and learn from - thanks guys!

Step 2: Professional Ingredients

Commercial bagel recipes are highly coveted pieces of information - often making, or breaking a bagel making business.  Beauty's Bagel Shop, and therefore the ingredients we're showcasing in this Instructable use a classic Montreal recipe, with the addition of a New York Bagel standard ingredient - salt.  Considered to be the "best of both worlds" this recipe makes a very tasty bagel.  

I've listed the ingredients exactly as used at Beauty's in Oakland, CA below.  For quantities that relate to someone making less then hundreds or thousands of bagels per day, check out the at home recipe in the next step.

*photos of each of the ingredients appears in the expanded photo section of this step.

Malt
The first of the dry ingredients in Bagel making, malt lends it’s sweetness to the bagel, helps to form the crispy crust, and controls the overall browning.  Beauty’s Bagel Shop uses dry powdered malt, however barley malt syrup can be found in most supermarkets. Other substitutes include brown rice syrup, honey, or agave, please note however, that each of these substitutes has a different and often increased sweetness factor that should be taken into account.

Organic Cane Sugar
Sugar offers additional sweetness to the bagel.

Refined Sea Salt
Although not found in a traditional Montreal bagel, Beauty’s (and the customers) have found salt to be a nice addition and flavor profile to their bagels. Salt also helps prohibit the yeast from allowing the dough to rise too much leading to a chewier and denser bagel. It is best to weigh your salt for the bagel recipe you use since different types of salt have different size grains and therefore can vary within a single cup measurement. Beauty’s recommends a refined (small grain) sea salt for bagel mixes.

Instant Yeast
Yeast is an essential ingredient in the making of bagels since it is largely responsible for the leavening process as well as the fermentation process giving each bagel it’s unique flavor.

Vegetable Oil
A very small amount of vegetable oil is included in the recipe in order soften the bagel dough and increase shelf life.

Water
Water or lack thereof, is a secret to most traditional New York and Montreal bagels. Most bagels are less than 60% water and often will get down into the low 50 percentiles. This low water content (most breads have mid 60 to 80% hydration) is responsible for the firm, tight structure of the bagel and also allows the bagel to withstand being parboiled in water later.

Eggs
While there are such things as "egg bagels", eggs are an essential ingredient in the standard plain/seeded bagel recipes.

High Gluten Flour
Beauty’s Bagel Shop uses high gluten flour from The Central Milling Company. Most bagel shops also use a high gluten or protein flour to create a bagel that has a distinctively chewy texture. Regular bread flour can be substituted but it will lead to a less dense bagel due to less gluten in the flour.  The general consensus is, if you are making bagels at home, take the extra step and source a high-gluten flour with around 13% gluten.

Step 3: Home Recipe

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Here's a recipe using the same ingredients as the pro version in the previous step, just modified for greater success in the home kitchen. Original recipe from "Montreal, Bagels Like None Other", written by Marcy Goldman-Posluns from May, 1987, reprinted in the New York Times.

Ingredients for 18 bagels
  • 1 1/2 cups water, room temperature
  • 2 packages dry quick-rising yeast (or 1 1/2 ounces fresh yeast)
  • 1 teaspoon sugar
  • 2 1/2 teaspoons refined sea salt
  • 1 whole egg
  • 1 egg yolk
  • 1/4 cup vegetable oil
  • 1/2 cup malt or honey
  • 5 cups or more high gluten bread/baking flour

Step 4: Mix

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Combine all of the ingredients except the salt and eggs into a large bowl or mixer.

The dough should be mixed until just incorporated and shaggy, then covered for 30 minutes (if left uncovered, the dough will lose hydration).

Add salt and old dough, approximately 10% of total dough volume you are mixing from the previous batch of bagels (if possible) and mix for 1 minute.

Next, add the eggs and mix until fully incorporated, about 5 minutes.

Finally, let the dough rest, covered, for an additional 15 minutes.


Step 5: Stretch Test

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Commonly known among bakers as the “window pane test”, this step is essential in determining the gluten development in your bagel dough.  If the gluten has developed and is present in your batch of dough, you will be able to stretch the dough relatively thin without it ripping and light will be able to pass through.

The gif shows Blake ripping the dough as another way to test for gluten development.  The dough should be stretchy before it breaks apart.

If your dough cannot be stretched to this point, or rips immediately upon stretching, put the dough back into the mixer and continue mixing.

Step 6: Roll out Dough

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Once the dough has sat for 15 minutes after mixing, and has passed the window pane test, it is ready to be rolled and shaped.

Cut the dough with a knife into thin strips.

Then, roll the dough back and forth with one hand until the roll of dough is the cross sectional width of your desired bagel - approximately 3/4".

It helps at this point to run your hands quickly under some cold water before rolling, the water will coat the dough and prevent it from sticking to your rolling surface.

Step 7: Form Bagel

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To shape your bagel, wrap a segment of your rolled dough around the palm and back of your hand. Break the dough where it meets back upon itself, keeping the now donut shaped piece of dough around your hand so that you can seal the seam in the next step.

A fully formed Beauty's bagel weighs right around 4 oz.

Sound a little small?  It is, classic Montreal bagels are somewhere between a "mini bagel" and the big puffy monsters that are commonly found in the supermarket.

Step 8: Roll Seam

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With the measured roll of dough still around your hand, place the section where the two ends meet against the counter or other rolling surface.

Lightly roll back and fourth along the area of the bagel with the seam a couple times, just enough to close the bagel without changing the diameter of the roll.

Place the rolled bagel onto a cookie sheet and cover the sheet with plastic wrap.

Step 9: Refrigerate For 1-2 Days

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The formed bagels are then refrigerated for 24-48 hours to allow for slow fermentation.

There are two reasons behind the cold fermentation of bagels. The first, cold fermentation prevents bagels from “over-rising” and then collapsing when submerged into the boiling bagel bath. The second reason is that cold fermentation allows the natural enzymes in the flour to release more trapped sugars from the flour’s starch molecules, creating a better bagel flavor.

Step 10: Boil in Honey Water

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After the bagels have been refrigerated for 1-2 days, dump them from the cookie sheet into a large pot of boiling water and honey.  Beauty's Bagel Shop uses 1 1/2 cups of honey in a very large pot to flavor their water.  Folks at home should use 1/4 cup of honey in the biggest pot you have on hand.  

Although some bagels today are streamed or infused with steam, the traditional method was to boil bagels before baking them.

Boiling achieves three things, coloration of the bagel, increased yeast activation within the bagel (yeast starts eating away at the sugar) and overall chewiness of the bagel.

Boiling affects the chewiness by setting the crust before the bagels are baked limiting the amount that the bagel can rise within the oven.

Traditional Montreal bagels are boiled in a honey water mixture while New York bagels are boiled in a lye and water mixture.  At home water mixtures can also include baking soda or malt as substitutes to honey or lye.  Montreal bagels are boiled for 4-5 minutes or until they look plump and rise to the surface.

*It's important to note that during this step the bagels did not actually boil, nor is it necessary that the water bath reach a rolling boil before adding in the bagels.  As an anecdotal note, this step was more of a hot honey water soak than a rolling boil.

Step 11: Plain Bagels

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Plain bagels require some special attention.  As a baker you want to move them as quickly as you can from the boiling step to the wood plank that they rest on upon before being put into the oven.

Blake wipes the wooden planks down with a wet rag before placing the plain bagels upon it to prevent them from sticking.  Arrange the bagels so that they are close, but not touching.

The seeded bagels have their own non-stick coating due to their toppings.

Step 12: Sesame

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Sesame bagels are reported to be the most popular bagel in Montreal, and so naturally could not be left out of this Instructable.

With any flavored bagel you want to move quickly from the boiling process to the seasoning step. This allows the bagel to retain its moisture on the outside, which helps the seeds stick to the bagels themselves.

Fill a large bowl with sesame seeds and dredge the freshly boiled bagels in the sesame seeds.

Place the sesame bagels upon the wooden plank so that they are close, but not touching.

Step 13: Everything

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Everything bagels are a popular flavor as well, but what exactly goes into an everything bagel seasoning mixture?

Beauty’s uses seasame seeds, poppy seeds, dried garlic, dried onion, sea salt, caraway seeds, and fennel seeds.

Dredge the bagels through the mixture just as with the sesame seeds in the previous step and place them onto the wooden plank.

Step 14: Moisten Plain Bagels

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Make sure the plain bagels have enough water on them to give them a nice golden glaze in the oven and prevent them from sticking.

If they are looking a little parched you can spray some water, or ring a wet rag over them.

Step 15: Wood Fired Oven

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Beauty’s Bagel Shop uses a 10,000 lb Woodstone oven to bake their bagels that runs on both wood and gas.  Blake and Amy use primarily almond and walnut as their wood sources.

Almond burns hotter and slower while walnut sparks up and gets the fire going. The gas portion of the oven is nice because it brings the oven up to temperature and also helps maintain an even baking temperature even as the fire fluctuates during the baking process.  

Bagels can of course be baked in a non-wood burning oven, but the wood adds a really nice crispy quality to the bagel.  Home bakers can simply bake the bagels on a pizza stone (better) or cookie sheet (acceptable) and need not tend the bagels quite as much as we'll see Blake do in the commercial oven.

Step 16: Bake and Tend

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Once the oven comes to 450 degrees F, it’s time to bake!

Bake the bagels on the wooden planks for 4-5 minutes to prevent them from sticking to the oven and burning. After the initial bake, take the bagels off the planks and bake them for another 4-5 minutes rotating as necessary in the oven depending on the fire condition.

Blake puts the raw bagels into the oven closest to the wood fire, then slowly rotates each row of bagel towards the cooler side of the oven in a beautiful frogger/tetris type manner.

During peak times managing the oven is a full time job as the beast can hold literally hundreds of bagels at a time.

Step 17: Sheeba

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It's worth noting and appreciating the giant wooden tool called a sheeba that Blake uses to move the bagels around inside the wood burning oven.  Bagel ovens tend to be custom built and very large in size - so big that a normal bakers spatula, peel, or paddle simply wouldn't work.  That's where the sheeba comes in.

Usually made from a solid untreated piece of wood whose length is roughly a bit longer than the depth of the bagel oven, the sheeba has beveled edges and a sturdy handle.  Beauty’s sheeba is a piece of poplar that's 9' long.

It takes a lot of practice to manage the sheeba, but once mastered it's quite an impressive skill.

Step 18: Check for Done-ness

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Blake looks for color and a feeling of firmness in the bagel to know when it is done.  Make sure to check both sides and all the bagels on the sheeba before pulling them from the oven.

If some bagels cook faster than others, remove them individually and continue cooking the rest of the row.

Step 19: Toss

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This is perhaps the most fun and impressive step in the bagel making process.  Using finess, Blake slides the sheeba under the far right row of bagels in the oven and loads up as many as 30 bagels at once onto the wooden plank.  The sheeba is then removed from the oven and with a calculated, but effortless flick of the wrist, all of the bagels are tossed from the sheeba into a custom made bin that resides next to the oven.  We watched Blake toss at least one hundred and fifty bagels into the air - all landed perfectly in a small pile in the bin.

I'm not sure that this last step is necessary in the home, but perhaps just a nod of respect to the Montreal bagel maker, it'd be best to toss them from the oven onto a cooling rack where they can rest.  

Montreal bagels are best eaten fresh, and have a wonderful texture to them - almost as if they've been pre-toasted by the wood burning oven for you to enjoy.  They are certainly denser than a standard New York bagel, not to mention smaller, but they are sweeter as well, and take to any and all of your favorite bagel toppings very nicely.

Many thanks to Blake and Amy for letting us document their amazing bagel making process.  Hopefully this Instructable demystifies some of the tips and tricks to making great bagels (on the west coast) and helps you make bagels at home.  If not, you can always head on down to Beauty's Bagel Shop on Telegraph Avenue in North Oakland and pick up a dozen fresh Montreal bagels from Blake and Amy.
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CobyUnger made it!1 year ago

Bagels are my second favorite thing to bake after pumpkin pie. Thanks for the tips.

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Thanks guys, fantastic 'ible, a wealth of detail and deservedly featured in the email, so glad I made time to try it straight away, here are the (imperfect) results:
http://shillingandflorin.tumblr.com/post/41402730636/first-beigel-run-complete-using-this-cool
wow, yours look like they rose too much. That would explain your complaints wouldn't it?
Update: I finally made them and they were great, even though mind came out all strangely shapen. I stretched the dough to make the rounds instead of just using the right length and wrapping it. I baked on a pizza stone and the plain stuck like crazy. Not sure what I'd do differently, but frankly, I'm not as fond of plain, so I might just not worry about it.
Is it ok to freeze the dough at some point in the process?? In a family of 3, 18 or so bagels don't go before the last few are bricks.
t.rohner2 years ago
Very nice instructable 5*

As a avid baker, i will definitely try this.
Last weekend, i made indian "naan" bread with yoghurt and browned butter.  I sould have "instrucablized" it... Maybe next time.

Now this recipe really sounds promising.
I'm a big fan of long slow fermentation. It brings out the flavour like nothing else. I also do it in my bread instructable and for my pizza doughs.

Thank you very much for this work.
I lone naan. Please write that process!
Affects not Effects
Peak not Peek

'Love' not lone?

If we're going to be pedantic about English and the written word, then let's put an 'up' in the 'Please write sic [up] that process!'

Do please note the square parenthesis not (brackets) and the 'sic' denoting the Editor's comment rather than the direct quote.

Waddya say hey Jimmbo?

or shall we simply let these minor idiosyncratic grammatical errors pass without getting ourselves up onto little high horses.
I don't understand, what you're referring to.
Maybe a deleted comment?

If it's about my English, i was born and raised in Switzerland.
There are four official languages spoken here. English isn't one of them.
I startded learning English at age 13. It was the third foreign language i learned.

Although i also like to read a decent English, the topic of the instructable is more important to me.
It has nothing to do with you, sir. I made some comments about incorrect words in an attempt to be helpful to the author of the piece, and someone decided to take offense and hijack your comment in his rush to pass judgement on me.

I truly would love to see your naan recipe.
Hello Justin

Here is the recipe i started with:

7g instant dry yeast
1 tablespoon sugar (dark sugar might be interesting)
250ml water
600g wheat flour (i used type 550 bread flour)
4 tablespoon browned butter (it was Ghee in the original recipe)
(i browned around 150g butter for the dough and for brushing the baked breads)
240g natural yoghurt (no low-fat bullshit)
18g salt

I added the ingredients into my bread maker, always adding the salt and the fats late during mixing.
My Panasonic takes 45 minutes in the pizza dough program.
So i add the salt and fat only after 6-8 minutes, while the other ingredients are already incorporated in the dough.
You can do this by hand or with your kitchen machine as well. I use my Kenwood for larger batches. It's 20 years ago, i did it manually...

After 90 minutes rising, i divide the dough into 18 pieces and form balls.
Leave them covered for 20 minutes to relax the gluten (dough).(If you don't relax the dough, the stretching will be a nuisance.)
Form oval or drop-forms about 10mm (half-inch), put on on cookie-paper.
Let them ferment and rise for another 20 minutes.

Then sprinkle them with water by hand and then with sesame seeds. You can take dark and light ones mixed.
Puncture them with a fork, otherwise they will blow up like balloons.

Bake them 8 to 10 minutes on a pizza stone at around 200°C or until light brown. Don't bake them too dark, if you need to reheat it.
After they come out of the oven, paint them with browned butter.

If you have a "Tandoor", smack your "naans" to it's walls. I could bake them in my wood fired pizza oven, but now it's freezing outside ;-)

Naan is served in linen covered baskets. It's not crunchy when served. But still, baking them to a golden brown in the first place, gives the right flavour.

Happy baking

You are a scholar and a gentleman. Thank you for this!
No Mr Rohner, my comment wasn't directed at you at all. Quite the opposite; it was an aside to JustJim who clearly feels that he needs to be everyone's English grammar tutor on here.

Indeed, if JustJim speaks and writes Italian, French or German to level of competency that you do vis a vis English, he is a fortunate man. My guess is that Jim doesn't. There is a good reason why this forum has a 'be nice' policy, and I simply get irked at 'know lotses' who frankly take the joy out of many amazing instructible comment pages. Shame really Justjim couldn't discern the humour (albeit dry and of the sisterly nudging variety) in my comment.

James, jim, just jimmbyjimbo, jimbarella... learn to laugh at yourself and others may laugh along with you rather than as now, at you.

Enough! Jimsiebaby, you've become 'low hanging fruit' so I shall desist from sport with you, as people with humour challenges are too hard work.

I am reminded of Dante Alighieri's view that as such " A mighty
flame followeth a tiny spark ....."
And, while you're at it, "its" denotes the possessive, as in "a bagel gets its dense, chewy texture from gluten" while "it's" is a conjunction of "it is" --"it's an ongoing discussion as to whether one should correct grammatical errors or not"!
Well, I say I was trying to be helpful, not pedantic. I hate it when I notice grammatical errors in my own work, and am glad when others help me correct it.

You may have noticed, in your rush to educate me, that I make no such effort on comments. The actual published Instructable is the important thing.

It is unfortunate you jumped to the wrong conclusion.

Waddya say we leave it to the actual author to decide whether I succeeded in my intention?
danzo3212 years ago
So many people are acting like they are afraid of gluten these days. What's up with that?
Modern wheat hybrids (since the "Green Revolution" in the '50s) contain some proteins that are difficult to digest; humans do not have the enzymes to break gluten down. Gluten and other compounds in today's wheat promotes gluten sensitivity, celiac disease, and other problems which can cause an aberrant immune response, leading to autoimmune diseases.
Celiac disease is genetic.
http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/celiac/
Do you know if the gluten in proto-wheats (spelt, farro, and other "primitive" precursors to wheat) cause the same reactions as modern hybridized wheat does?
It seems so. According to Alessio Fasano, the Medical Director for the U. of Maryland's Center for Celiac Research, no one can properly digest gluten. He says it all depends on how well our intestinal walls close after we ingest it and how our immune system reacts to it. For more info, check there or read Dr. Wm. Davis' book Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight and Find Your Path Back to Health.
Very well written and tasty instructable! I really miss Montreal's bagels! Thanks to you, I'll be trying to cook some soon!
mickryobe2 years ago
I know this is an argument that will never be resolved.
Sweet Montreal bagels vs not sweet Toronto bagels.
I am a Torontonian. To me a Montreal bagel is a semi petrified donut. Rather effeminate. Often too soft. Merely a circle of sweetened bread. Suicide for us diabetics who should not be eating any bagels at all but who are inexorably drawn to those lovely, wholesome Toronto creations that go Thunk! when they reach your stomach.
This article, nevertheless is excellent. I'm hungry.
[delete]. I knew if I posted this someone might try to cut me off at the Ontario, Quebec border for merely voicing my preferences and superior taste.

Fear not Blake and Amy. A little controversy will boost business. You have a winner.

When I was a kid (1930's) my mother would send me to the baker's to buy a dozen bagels. There was only one kind then - plain. I would come home with the bagels dangling from a string through their holes - no bag. A dozen bagels to our neighbourhood baker was 13. Try it.
suayres2 years ago
For high gluten flour, look no further than King Arthur Bread Flour--gluten content 14-15%. I'm a KAF convert, since coming to the realization that every KAF variety I use (AP, cake flour, or bread flour) guarantees uniformly excellent results, every single time. Their website is www.kingarthurflour.com --and, by the way, their store is a baker's dream: great tools, terrific recipes, fantastic cookbooks, and, of course, wonderful flour. And no, I don't work for them, nor am I paid to post about them, I just love their products.
Deepford_UK2 years ago
Brilliant Instructable.
Thank you so much for sharing.

Kind regards,
Anna.
PS I have tried this and the results are utterly delicious. Truly fabulous!
heather342 years ago
yes..the pizza and the bagels. If your a north easterner and move anywhere else...there is just nothing else like it. Sometimes I think I would KILL for a real slice of NY Pizza. Sad..I know...boo hoo.
justjimAZ2 years ago
Five stars for sure. Always wanted to make bagels!
justjimAZ2 years ago
"During peek times managing the oven is a full time job as the beast can hold literally hundreds of bagels at a time."
Probably peak times? The idea of a manager busy managing the oven while a bunch of people try to get a peek was entertaining tough!
justjimAZ2 years ago
"Boiling effects the chewiness by setting the crust before the bagels are baked limiting the amount that the bagel can rise within the oven."
Affects, not effects.
Thanks for this 'ible!
wrksnfx2 years ago
OMG THANK YOU, THANK YOU, THANK YOU, FINALLY SOMEBODY WHO KNOWS HOW TO MAKE REAL BAGELS and not rolls. Sorry for the shouting but my bagel lust took over, oh boy I see super-sized garlic bagels w/ smoked salmon and cream cheese in my future yum. :) :) :)
pcelica072 years ago
Bravo!Thanks for sharing!:)))
Drayon842 years ago
I have experimented with bagels before but I have never had very clear instructions. This has given me really great ideas for the next time I make them. Thank you very much for this instructable.
LynneCsikos2 years ago
Lovely instructable! I feel like I've just been visiting Blake and Amy's bakery, and had a thoroughly good - and interesting - time with you all. I'm definitely gonna give this a try - they look too good not to :D
tbone1882 years ago
This is the reason I love Instructables. Every one is a new adventure. GREAT JOB!!
This is awesome - I've taken to making my own bagels since moving to the Bay Area from Montreal two years ago, having not found good substitutes. I will definitely try the recipe plus visit the shop!
danzo3212 years ago
Thanks, I had no idea they rested 24-48 hours
daytona6752 years ago
Superb Instructable! We live in France where bagels are unavailable, so I have made them myself with acceptable results. But this Instructable will help me tidy up my methods to achieve even better results. Merci beaucoup!
marnieC2 years ago
oh wow, i never thought of boiling in honey water. The recipes i have read all suggest salted or baking soda water.
Thank you for this Instructable! Gives me some ideas for my own bagels.
Wow! Thanks so much! This was great lunchtime reading. I especially loved the animated gif in Step 19...
Great write up.
Burlington VT has Myers Bagels. AMAZING Montreal style. They are pretty much sold out of the best of the stock by 9 or 10am each day. That and having moved an hour away 4 years ago means none of that for us anymore... so this instructable is an Illuvatar-send and I so hope we can pull it off. NY bagels = blech comparatively.
thanks so much!
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