Introduction: Motion Security Alarm With PIR
Have you ever wanted to build a project that had could detect the presence of a person in a room? If so, then you can do this very easily using the PIR (Passive Infra Red) Motion sensor.This motion sensor can detect the presence of a person in a room. Therefore, you can build projects such as burglar alarms and automated appliances. Attach this motion sensor along with an Arduino and place it in your room to build an intruder detection system.
This tutorial will show you to interface a motion sensor with an Arduino and to use it to build a burglar alarm. This system detects the presence of an intruder in your room and sends a signal to the Arduino. The Arduino then creates an alarm sound using a buzzer to scare the intruder away.
Step 1: Required Materials
- PIR Motion Sensor.
- 9V Battery
- battery cap
- Connecting wires.
Step 2: What Is PIR (Passive InfraRed Sensor)
PIR Sensor - More about PIR sensor
Buy PIR Sensor - PIR
An individual PIR sensor detects changes in the amount of infrared radiation impinging upon it, which varies depending on the temperature and surface characteristics of the objects in front of the sensor. When an object, such as a human, passes in front of the background, such as a wall, the temperature at that point in the sensor's field of view will rise from room temperature to body temperature, and then back again. The sensor converts the resulting change in the incoming infrared radiation into a change in the output voltage, and this triggers the detection. Objects of similar temperature but different surface characteristics may also have a different infrared emission pattern, and thus moving them with respect to the background may trigger the detector as well.
PIRs come in many configurations for a wide variety of applications. The most common models have numerous Fresnel lenses or mirror segments, an effective range of about ten meters (thirty feet), and a field of view less than 180 degrees. Models with wider fields of view, including 360 degrees, are available—typically designed to mount on a ceiling. Some larger PIRs are made with single segment mirrors and can sense changes in infrared energy over thirty meters (one hundred feet) away from the PIR. There are also PIRs designed with reversible orientation mirrors which allow either broad coverage (110° wide) or very narrow "curtain" coverage, or with individually selectable segments to "shape" the coverage. Differential detection Pairs of sensor elements may be wired as opposite inputs to a differential amplifier. In such a configuration, the PIR measurements cancel each other so that the average temperature of the field of view is removed from the electrical signal; an increase of IR energy across the entire sensor is self-cancelling and will not trigger the device. This allows the device to resist false indications of change in the event of being exposed to brief flashes of light or field-wide illumination. (Continuous high energy exposure may still be able to saturate the sensor materials and render the sensor unable to register further information.) At the same time, this differential arrangement minimizes common-mode interference, allowing the device to resist triggering due to nearby electric fields. However, a differential pair of sensors cannot measure temperature in this configuration, and therefore is only useful for motion detection. Product design The PIR sensor is typically mounted on a printed circuit board containing the necessary electronics required to interpret the signals from the sensor itself. The complete assembly is usually contained within a housing, mounted in a location where the sensor can cover area to be monitored.
PIR motion sensor design
The housing will usually have a plastic "window" through which the infrared energy can enter. Despite often being only translucent to visible light, infrared energy is able to reach the sensor through the window because the plastic used is transparent to infrared radiation. The plastic window reduces the chance of foreign objects (dust, insects, etc.) from obscuring the sensor's field of view, damaging the mechanism, and/or causing false alarms. The window may be used as a filter, to limit the wavelengths to 8-14 micrometres, which is closest to the infrared radiation emitted by humans. It may also serve as a focusing mechanism; see below.
Step 3: Circuit Diagram
Tha connect all component so above diagram.