How to build 8x10 feet simple Pergola for your backyard that you can grow Grape vine right next to it and it will eventually cover it for you and give you a nice shade.
Step 1: Materials & Sizes
Here is the list of material:
I suggest to use Redwood.
Item Size Qty
Post 4x4x8 4
Rafter 2x4x10 7
Beam 2x6x12 2
Hex Bolt 4x1/2 8
Washer 1/2 16
Nut 1/2 8
Cement Mix 60 lb 4
BEHR Premium Transparent Weatherproofing Wood Finish 1 Gal 1
Nails 16d 3 1/2 14
Step 2: Cutting
Notch rafters at each side of 2x4"x10' rafters, 12inches inside and 1.5 inches width with 1 3/4 depth, this notch will be used to sit on 2x6 Beam.
Notch beams 2x6"x12', notches starting 12" from sides and 20inches apart, with 1.5 inches width with 1 inch depth. basically rafters will sit into beams and notches will be nailed. you can clamp 2 of the together and cut at one shot.
each posts needs to be cut a place for beams to sit on. 1.5 inches deep and 5.5 inches length, pictures will give you better idea.
i used hand circular saw (see picture) and jig saw, it depend how expert are you using these tools, but it is little bit hard. To empty the notch basically i cut the marked lines 1.5 inch apart first then start drill a hole and cut the remaining with jigsaw then clean the surface with circular saw. Fun right!
Step 3: Putting Protective Coat on woods
it is important to apply a protective coat on the woods after cutting and it is easier before assembly. it is better to apply 2 layers of coat. my wife helped me on this one. after i finished cutting each wood i gave it to her and she puts coat and after half an hour she puts another layer.
Step 4: Digging the Post Holes
Dig 4 holes 8 by 10 feet rectangular, 1 feet deep and about 1 feet diameter. some people say it needs to be 2 feet deep but i think 1 feet is enough and it worked out good for me.
Dad helped me on this one!
Step 5: Bolt
Now it is time to Bolt Beams and Posts together. lay 2 posts 10 feet apart and place the beam on the sides that was cut out. Note that the first notch on beam (at both sides) has to be right straight and flush to the post at outer part of post! Adjust the posts and beam to have right angel and also measure the distance of the posts on both top and bottom, remember there is 99% chance that they don't match even if your beam and post are at right angel, find a medium spot, don't worry it will be adjusted when it goes into ground.
Then Clamp both sides of beam and posts. mark 2 points on each post 1.5 inch from side for drilling then drill a 1/2 inch hole. Use your bolt and 2 washer each sides and the nut to tighten (don't over-tight, washer will penetrate into the wood). then open the clamps. do the same thing for all posts.
you will have something similar in the picture.
Step 6: Assembly
Place bolted beams and posts into the dug holes, you might need 3 people, 2 to hold the posts & beams, and one person should bring the rafters and install them one by one on the beams into the notches, with using some hammer job.
Step 7: Pour Concrete
before Pouring cement, level the posts, if required use rock under the post to lift them, this is the hardest part, play with it until you find the best spot. also the other trick is use a rope and secure the structure from sides and anchor them to the ground. after the concrete is cured you can open them.
Now mix water and cement and pour into the holes, no magic.
Step 8: Nail the rafters
First remember to water cement for next couple of days to cure.
Next day when concrete is dry, nail the rafters from top into the notches, i used 16d nails 3 1/2 inches. drill a pilot hole and then hammer it.
it is ready to bring Grape vine branches on top of it.
Good luck and have fun.