Introduction: My Power and Water Generator - a Gift to the Whole World.
This is a pretty straight forward design to convert solar power into either electricity and water, or compressed air - and then lots of water and electricity.
It's simple to make and infinitely scalable, and with volume - meaning great numbers of units, it's a system that is a direct "plug and play" into the coal fired generators and grid system, thus keeping really good equipment in service and powering the grid.
One of the principle benefits is that it also facilitates the process of distributed generation.
All the manufacturing facilities are available - for all the parts, and in HUGE volume.
Step 1: This Is Fairly Self Explainatory.
I did a far more comprehensive detailing of the issues, connected with the fossil fuel industry and Australia's inept prime ministers and the greasy palmed pal syndrome of corruption and ineptitude in Australian politics here:
My entry is a straight forward solar thermal generation system that is
simple to produce, infinitely scalable and produces electricity and water or compressed air (and a lot of water), to drive turbines at power stations.
One of the fundamental features of it is the capacity to stratify stored hot water for night time power generation.
My system can provide virtually unlimited power and fresh water at very low cost, with a service life per unit of some 40 to 50 years continuous running.
This system uses established and proven low technology to generate electricity and fresh water in large quantities, which can also be stored as hydroelectric and similar. It can also store it's own waste heat for night time conversion back into electricity and water.
It's infinitely scalable in a cookie cutter template fashion.
It enables the use of distributed generation, as well as the recommisisoning or conversion of coal fired plants to run compressed air, instead of steam.
The direct byproduct from the cooling system is fresh water.
This system creates clean green power and water in abundance - which are both sorely needed.
Each unit has the ability to generate on average 300Kw. (Probably ~500Kw+ in the tropics)
OK now to the technical notes:
The design has several criteria. It uses all steel and or iron parts like pistons and ball and roller bearings etc.
It has to be assembled very cleanly - as this means that the working fluid, can carry the lubricants and the only filter needed is a magnet, thus allowing the solid lubricants in the liquid lubricant to circulate indefinitely.
This means that the machinery never wears out.
That is significant point number one.
Point number 2 is this.
The working fluid needs has 3 primary components.
It has the low temperature "boiling point" fluid. This is light sweet parafinatic naptha - or Shellite.
The Material Safety Data Sheet on it:
Naphtha (petroleum), hydrotreated light
Containing n-Hexane and Ethylbenzene
SECTION 9 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Boiling Point 50-135*C
You see because the temperatures of the "working fluid" and heat sources are so much lower in geothermal power stations, they use "boiled naptha" as the "steam" to power the turbines......
You see water when boiled, becomes "wet steam" and it's only useable at around 2200Kpa (200 PSI) between the temperatures of 420 - 450*C - other wise the steam contains drops of water, that when hitting the turbine blades at high speed, the water droplets, physically erode the piping and the valves and the blades; and any hotter than 450*C, the water starts to disassociate into oxygen (rusts out the steel very quickly at high temperatures) and hydrogen (= possibly HUGE bang from exploding and issues of metal embrittlement)
So since geothermal power stations operate in a much lower temperature range, they use "Shellite" or light sweet naptha distillates, as their working fluid, instead of water and steam.
Since experience is a much better teacher than days of dedicated academic study - in relation to thermodynamics, the pressure and temperature ratios etc... I drilled a block of alumium (As invented by Humpty Davros, leader of the Daleks), with 2 holes.
One hole I partially filled with naptha, and then fitted a pressure gauge, and the other hole I filled with clean motor oil to conduct the heat to the mercury thermometers.
A simple butane lighter was used to heat the alumium.
You see the system uses huge coils of agricultural poly pipe to heat
water, in the sun, under a clear poly carbonate cover - then the heat is transferred to the working fluid which turns to "hydrocarbon" steam, which pushes the pistons.
Left to their own ends, water will boil in poly pipe, in straight runs, on a hot summers day.
Poly pipes last for decades, so ideally, the best option for system stability is to keep the pipe running at around 80*C.
At 80*C, the naptha boils to produce around 250Kpa (35 PSI) gauge pressure - which is around the same pressure as the air inside most car tyres...
If this pressure was fed into a 20cm diameter piston, the force exerted on that piston would lift 770Kg or 1700 lbs.
Now this is how the system works, as demonstrated in the following diagrams.
This is the general principle, espousing these facts, with subject to variation.
The "energy" of the sun's light, is calibrated to be an average over the entire exposed surface of the earth - meaning that the highest strength light at noon, around the equator, to the weakest of light coming over the horizon, is averaged out to 1000W a meter squared.
Meaning this would work really well at the equator, tropical climates, and even to the more higher and lower lattitudes - especially during their summer.
No matter, this systems derivatives (electricity) or compressed air, and fresh water, can be transmitted to these areas quite successfully, along the already existing power lines.
The size of the collection unit, was chosen on the basis of making sense.
Thus, in a black polyethylene pipe, would into a 20 meter coil, we have a collection area of 400 square meters. Or going on the solar constant, we have a collection area of 400,000 watts - or 400 Kilowatts, at noon, more or less perpendicular to the sun.
So if we assume that we are at the latitude of Melbourne Australia, given that the sun rises and sets, we will say at 6am and 6pm (for convenience sake) allowing an hours warm up time in the morning and cool down time in the evening, and the peak power generation at noon, this means we get usable power from about 7am to about 5pm.
This active run time and the energy input, will of course increase closer to the equator and diminish further from the equator.
But we could safely say that from 7am to noon and then to 5pm, we could harvest 200Kwh on average through the whole day.
I'd say that the conversion efficiency would be about 70 to maybe 80%, over all, bringing the output to about 160Kwh through the whole day.
One 20m diameter harvester would be enough, based on the 2014 average household electricity usage in Australia of 5.8 kWh per year. to power about 32 houses.
The other design element which is fundamentally fantastic, is that the exhaust heat, can be used in one of several ways, which is easy to switch between the two.
Since there are global water shortages and coal fired and steam driven generators, it's actually BAD to be wasteful, unimaginative and generally clueless to scrap the GOOD CONDITION hardware, such as the steam turbines and the generators and the transmission equipment.
The beauty of this system is that I have a preference for the piston engine design as it's well understood, and we have the global manufacturing capacity for millions of engines, with the only real variations it to optimise for long stroke, setting the valve timing to operate as a steam engine instead of an internal combustion engine, and making gas tight connections into and out of the motors.
And as the only variable is the solar energy input, into the water filled coil, thus regulating the energy input, to the heat exchanger,, the only thing that needs to be an essential is for the "steam" engine, to be capable of performing over a broad RPM range.
Here is the beauty of my design of working fluid.
Since we are using Light Naptha (Shellite / Lighter Fluid) which has a boiling point of 50*C and a comfortable working temperature, of about 80*C, we can mix in a lubricant composed of 100ml of 30W mineral motor oil, with 10 grams of copper anti-seize powder and 10 grams of PTFE (Teflon) to 1 litre of light naptha.
This mixture, when passed as a whole, through the heat exchanger, converts mostly to a gas, with an oily mist ,
If the dished crown pistons are drilled with a small hole, enough lubricant mist will spray down on the wrist pin, and the crank shaft, that with a vacuum pump, instead of a pressurised oil pump, the lubricant can be drawn from the engine, via the crank shaft and returned to circulation.
The exhaust gas is then passed through an evaporative heat exchange, where it gives up it's energy to salt water (brine or sea water) and the hot water is cooled by evaporation.
The exhaust gas can also be used to heat up tanked water, in a stratified fashion, leaving a layer of progressively deepening hot water. Thus with a energy loss of some 30%, if 10 solar harvesting units transfer their energy to the tanks during the day, then 7 solar harvesting units, can be driven by the accumlated heat energy during the night.
If we select the need to generate compressed air, to be gathered from many multiple harvesters, the process of compressing air, creates about 60% of heat energy, that can be used to either generate more fresh water, or it can be stored in the hot water tanks.
Thus the working fluid is rapidly recirculated, with it's very low energy density, from being cooled to 45*C and then reheated to approximately 80*C - to drive a "hydrocarbon steam engine" which can be used to drive an electrical generator and or a compressor.
The by product is a lot of electricity and a great deal of fresh water or compressed air to be coupled with a great many other harvesters, to drive the turbines in a formerly coal fired power station, and staggering amounts of fresh water.
Over all, this is pretty easy, ALL of the manufacturing facilities exist for all of the components.
I see things such as all the componentry and operating systems, in full colour, 3D, full animation, multi-perspectives, if you want me to give and share the details of all the components and how to run them, just drop me a line.
It's yours, it's everyone's.