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Picture of Neck for a Stringed Instrument
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This is a technique I have used for longer necks. I'm demonstrating it on a uke neck because they seem less sacrosanct than guitars or violins. As such, people are ready to tackle a uke, patching together cigar boxes and plumbing parts with a vigor and profanity rarely administered to the noble guitar. Thhpt.
Basically, 1/16" thick slabs of wood are bent 14 degrees to make the head/neck transition. Then fiberglass is embedded in a rigid glue between the wood laminates. I use the urethane-glue-known-as-Gorilla because of its rigidity and availability. An epoxy would also do well here, but not necessarily better; it can be hard to find an epoxy of the appropriate viscosity, but Gorilla glue can be found anywhere.

This method eliminates the deadly grain run-out on the head/neck transition, which is the first spot a stringed instrument will snap when dropped or mishandled.
The fiberglass will handle most of the stress of the strings; this allows use of a lighter wood, creating a lightweight but extremely rigid neck, less fatiguing to hold, less susceptible to climate changes and ready for a lifetime of music.
 
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Step 1: Description

A steel sting instrument is under more tension, so for those necks I bend the laminates (or "lams") and fiberglass to form the heel. Most woods do not easily bend that sharply, even in thin strips, so we'll avoid that chore for this relatively low-tension neck and build up the heel like a classical guitar.

Step 2: Making the Jig

Picture of Making the Jig
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A tenor uke has a 17" scale. I want to put the bridge in the middle of nowhere on the lower bout, which in this case is 7" from the neck joint. So there is 10" of neck before I hit the nut. I'll give myself 11" of neck on the jig before the head/neck transition, and trim off what I don't need. This uke will be a 6-string, so I'll need about 7" of head for the tuning machines; and one to grow on makes an 8" head on the jig.

Start by cutting two straight sections of 2x4s 20" long. Dampen a 2" side on one of the boards and run a bead of Gorilla glue down the center of a 4" side of the other. Clamp and let dry, scraping off any squeeze-out before it hardens.

Now cut a 14 degree wedge from the spine of the jig, 8" from one end. A miter saw makes this easy, but you can cut it by hand, too. For a triangle with two sides spanning two 2x4s (actual depth being 5") the short side will equal 1 1/4". Draw this triangle on both sides of the spine and cut carefully, watching both sides as you go.

Tape the acute angles tight against each other. Urethane glues excel at binding wood by the end grain-- dampen one side, apply glue to the other, then stand the jig upright, letting the tape act as a hinge and the weight of the 2x hold it in place. Let dry, scraping off any squeeze-out before it hardens.

Mark a line about 1/2" from either side of the joint. With a rasp, round the edge back to the line to make a smooth transition.

Step 3: Bending and Laminating

Spruce is light and strong, but poplar or bass would work well, and are commonly available at hobby and hardware stores. These woods will bend over the head/neck angle with little prompting-- usually wrapping a wet towel around the bending point for 15 minutes is enough to let you bend them cold. Even faster would be to use a hot pipe.

Prepare your Fiberglass cloth beforehand. You will need 4 pieces 4x19". Fiberglass cloth can be found at most hardware stores. The tidiest way I've found to cut it is to pull out 4-6 threads from the weave, then cut down the middle of this track. This ensures the cut is square, and keeps the long threads intact and in place.
You should also prepare your wood lams in advance. Scuff up the faces with 80 grit sand paper and pick up the dust with a damp rag.
The first lam in tacked in place with a small amount of rubber cement or white glue. With a scraper (I used a doubled-over piece of cardboard) spread a layer of Gorilla Glue on the first lam, wipe the bottom of the second lam again with a damp cloth, and press the two together. Spread a layer of glue on the top of the second lam, then spread the first piece of fiberglass on top, pulling out any wrinkles. Spread another layer of Gorilla Glue over the cloth. Dampen the bottom of the third lam, then lay it in place and immediately start spreading the next layer of glue.
Work your way up the layers in this fashion, ending with two lams without fiberglass between them. Press down at the head/neck transition, wiggling the lams to ensure they are seated. Clamp blocks over the neck and head. You want to squeeze just hard enough that a bead of glue appears along all the seams, but not so hard that you squeeze the glue out of the joints.
Clean your hands and work area with mineral spirits.

Step 4: Building up the Neck

Picture of Building up the Neck
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Pry the neck off of the jig. The first thing to do is to carve a taper into the neck. The Neck will be about 1/16" thinner at the nut than at the heal. This needs to be carved out of the front lam using a rasp, belt sander, or jointer. Carving it from the front lam also creates a sharp transition from the neck to the head, giving you a solid place to put the nut.

Build up a 2" x 2 1/2" block with solid wood or a stack of lams on the heel of the neck. Glue and clamp it so that the heel is about 11 1/2" from the neck/head transition point, let dry (scrape off any squeeze out before it hardens). Referenced from the front face, cut a 85 1/2 degree angle on the heel for an archtop, or a 89 degree for a flat top.
Now take a 3/16" slab of whatever you are using for a fretboard. Walnut, paperstone, ebony, whatevs. It needs to be 13" long and at least 2 1/4" wide. Cut one end square for the nut end and make a fiberglass sandwich the same way the rest of the lams were made. The square end should land right on the corner where the flat face of the neck ends and the head continues. Any mess made by the edge of the fiberglass or glue squeeze out will be covered by the nut. Clamp and let dry.

Step 5: Cutting the profile of the Neck

Picture of Cutting the profile of the Neck
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Draw a line down the middle of the fretboard. This 6-string tenor is going to be 1 7/8" wide at the nut, so I'll make a mark at 15/16" on both sides of the line at the nut, and 1" on both sides at the heel. Connect the marks.
One of the most recognizable features of a stringed instrument is the shape of the head. Figure out something you like, or copy something you admire.
I like a slightly flared head. Cut the sides and place a tuner machine against it. Mark the centers of the tuning barrels, then draw a line square with the sides from edge to center. Moving the square to the other side of the head, draw a square line from the center crossing to the edge.
Hold the tuning machines in place and mark a reasonable space for them to work in. About half an inch, centered around the string hole, seems to do well. Drill a 1/2" hole at either end of the slot and cut out the rest with a coping saw and file.

Clamp the neck to the edge of the jig, and cut within 1/16" of the line. Use a rasp to get right to the line, keeping the face square to the fretboard.

Step 6: Carving the Neck

Picture of Carving the Neck
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Draw a pleasing curve onto the heel and cut it out with a coping saw. I grabbed a cup and plate from the cupboard (I made this on the kitchen table) to draw the radii. Be as fancy as you want. A smaller radius at the base of the heel gives you a little more neck to play with.

Now flip your jig over and clamp it to your table. Clamp the neck in the crook of the jig at the head and at the fretboard extension.
Put the biggest, coarsest file in your hands and take a steady breath.
First rule of luthiery: If it looks good, it IS good. As you carve the neck, work methodically and along the entire length of the neck, alternating sides to ensure consistency.
Knock off the corners, turning them first into 45 degree angles, then knocking off their corners, until the neck is round. The layers will help; read them like a topographical map.
After the rasp, use 80-grit sandpaper, then 120, hitting the back, front, and sides of the head as well.

Step 7: Stretch Languorously

Picture of Stretch Languorously
Just be methodical. Unclamp the neck when you think you're done, or if you feel stuck, and hold it like you're playing. Bar some cords and windmill and kick like no-one is watching. The carving will actually go rather quickly, and after you will wonder what all the fuss was about.

Fretting is an instructable of its own, and will soon be posted separately. You may have caught glimpses of the uke body that is being made for this neck. The building instructions for it will be posted as well. My goal is to offer an indestructible uke with clear, bombastic tone.

The neck construction technique is quite scalable; I've used it for a baritone guitar with a 31" scale. Please post any pictures of instruments you have made with this technique, and write any insights, tips, and improvements you might have.

Thanks!

ASDTerror
rimar20003 years ago
Very interesting, thanks for sharing.

Your English is too rich for me, please translate Thhpt, I couldn't find the meaning.
asdterror (author)  rimar20003 years ago
My apologies. It's spelled "Thppft".
Sorry for the confusion.
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Thanks, but for Thppft I neither found the meaning in Google.
asdterror (author)  rimar20003 years ago
It's functionally like a sigh; not really a word. Something for when words fail you. "Thppft" is the sound of "blowing a raspberry", where you stick you tongue out and blow. This has the double function of making an inarticulate, derisive sound, and of letting you flap your tongue at the thing that is frustrating you.
In this instance, I was expressing frustration that most people don't approach guitars (building or playing; or for that matter drawing, or cooking, or love, or conversation) with the same zeal as a child with a kazoo.
OK, thanks.
friger3 years ago
I am facinated with your laminating method. Having done many laminate pieces, I've never used fiberglass cloth as an intermediate layer, nor have I used gorilla glue with the cloth, it has always been epoxy or polyester resin for me when glassing. My question is, do you think the cloth is a necessay step and why?
asdterror (author)  friger3 years ago
Fiberglass is extremely rigid even in compression when encased in glue ( wiki ). If you used a stronger wood like maple or even mahogany the 'glass wouldn't be strictly necessary, especially on a uke, with its short scale and nylon strings (meaning that it needs little tension to create a high pitch).

But I figure: it's already apart, and the glass should add quite a bit of strength and rigidity, and allow for a lighter neck. I think a light, rigid neck has better sustain and bandwidth.
The skeptic in me groans at this. I do need to run more tests. That's another appealing aspect of ukes-- they are structurally miniature guitars, and the steps to build them really are the same, just scaled down. So I can build a series of necks with different specs and techniques and (hopefully) work out what is useful/resilient/consistent and how the specs and techniques affect the sound of the instrument while expending less time/resources. While a uke doesn't NEED as strong of a neck as a steel string baritone guitar, it is nice to know that you could bludgeon a velociraptor to death with it and still play sum tUnE-YarDs.

Of course my Google-fu is failing me now, I can't cite the following but I'll see if I can find something concise later (Groan-- Skeptic-In-Me): Gorilla Glue is a polyurethane, and is actually closely related to resins, in that moisture acts as a catalyst. It does not set by evaporation.
Epoxy would be stronger, but not by enough to justify the difficulty and expense. In large quantities (the gallon jugs one could get at boat building shops) it would be a good way to go, and while I aspire to one day go through gallons of glue in a year (I am now recalling a stair-building company I worked for, with 55 gallon drums of Titebond on tap. Sigh.), I am not there yet. 

The uke neck used about 3 ounces of Gorilla Glue. So. Gorilla Glue is just that more useful and convenient that I'd rather have a bottle of that laying around.

I have made a 31" scale baritone guitar using poplar, without a trussrod, using this method, and even tuned it up to standard tuning before I learnt better (and broke a few strings). It deflected from perfectly flat to slight relief. No velociraptor has menaced me as of yet, so that final test is untried. But I live in hope. What is your experience with lams/epoxy? I am pretty new to the technique. I may be repeating old mistakes.
I've done things like vaccuum forming large boats using epoxy as the bonding agent to great sucess. I've done many smaller things too, from guitar stands and curve legged tables to fishing nets. I hate straight lines and laminating is far more controlable than steaming. You are spot on when it comes to the strength,, while there seems to be fewer and fewer velociraptors around these days to test the strength to weight aspects of the method I'm sure a panda would be a suitable test bed. On the down side of epoxy, the cheaper qualities are prone to failure after a few years and the seam lines tend to be more visable. PVA glue is a very suitable glue but I don't think it would work as well as gorilla glue when using your glass cloth method which I am going to try very soon.
asdterror (author)  friger3 years ago
One thing I didn't explicitly say regarding polyurethane glues: like epoxies and hot hide glue they are extremely rigid. PVAs can be a little mushy, and that could absorb vibration, much like Green Glue (an acoustic isolation compound).
It can also allow for creep in the joint. A little movement along the length of a lam can translate to a large movement on axis. On a guitar neck, where reflex is measured quite intimately and minutely, a little creep would be ruinous.

Reminds me again of stairbuilding. The rhythm of climbing stairs is also measured intimately and minutely. If you find yourself tripping over the same step repeatably: measure it and the surrounding stairs. The offending stair might be proud a mere 3/16". An embarrassingly small amount to trip over, but over you go.

Maybe it's not a big deal, using urethane instead of hot hide or epoxy or PVA. I don't know yet. We'll work on it.  Please let me know how it works for you.

Big boats! Sounds like fun! I hold a secret desire to build a big sailboat and just bum across the seas. It's still secret! Thank you, anonymity of teh internets! Also, pandas seem like small mountains. I lack the faith to try walloping one.
friger3 years ago
The pictures of the Gibsons with the broken necks made me weep a little.