Introduction: Numechron Digital Clock

Picture of Numechron Digital Clock

My Numechron Digital Clock design was inspired by the Pennwood Model 1364 digital clock. Clocks of this type originated in the 1930s, and were built for many years by the Pennwood and Lawson companies in many different wood, metal, and plastic case styles.

I really liked the Art Deco style of the Model 1364 case and chose to emulate it, although my clock is considerably larger than the prototype. While mimicking the original style, I employed considerable open space in the case design so that the clock's internals would be visible.

A Pennwood employee, F. Greenewalt, patented the mechanism for this type of clock in 1935. He developed an ingenious set of wheels, cams, and levers to flip the numerals and operate the clock. I consulted the original patent to design the mechanism for this clock.

Here is a video of the clock: Numechron digital clock

Here is a video describing design and build: Making Numechron


  • Carvewright CNC machine with carving bit and cutting bit
  • bench disc sander
  • drill press
  • clamps
  • screwdriver


  • 1/4" Baltic birch plywood
  • 1/4" aspen or poplar
  • 3/4" oak and pine
  • 1/8", 7/32" and 1/4" brass tubing
  • brass wood screws
  • small springs
  • super glue
  • wood glue
  • stain
  • polyurethane varnish

Step 1: Design

Picture of Design

From the original patent we can see the parts of the clock that we will need to build and how they go together.

I used a Carvewright CNC to make all of the parts and the Carvewright Designer software to design the parts. I did cut some prototype parts and try them out on temporary jigs, then made design adjustments, to make sure that the mechanism would function and verify the design.

(Carvewright uses a proprietary file format, not standard STL or DXF formats, so the files cannot be used with other CNC machines. I do plan to make the files available in the Carvewright Pattern Depot in the future.)

You could also make these parts with a scroll saw (the digits would need to be painted on rather than carved). Some minor modification to the parts illustrated in my build would be required. Templates are provided for all of the major parts except for the case parts.

Step 2: Fabricate the Parts

Starting with the hours, tens of minutes, and minutes wheels pasts, make these using 1/4" Baltic birch. Baltic birch plywood is a quality material with many thin plies that are generally void free. All of my materials came from a local home center.

To make these parts without a Carvewright CNC, use the full-size templates attached below. Print the pdf file on 8.5" x 11" paper, and check to make sure that your printout scaled properly. Fasten the templates to the plywood and cut them out with a scroll saw. Sand.

I used 1/4" poplar for the hours and minutes numerals. The template contains a table of dimensions for these parts. Note that the top and bottom edges of each numeral must be mitered - cut at an angle - as specified by the chart. The seconds numerals can be cut on a band saw using the profile template provided.

Cut the frame parts and motor mount parts from 3/4" hardwood.

Step 3: Assemble the Digits Wheels

Picture of Assemble the Digits Wheels

Once the parts for the wheels are all cut out, assemble the digits to the wheels one at a time. The digits pieces are trimmed as needed for a tight fit - I used a bench disc sander with the table set at the appropriate angle for the mitered edges of each digit. Glue and clamp.

Note that the tens of minutes, minutes ones, and seconds wheels all have a peg on the left side of the wheel. (Left while facing the front of the digits.) I used a small piece of 1/8" brass tubing, sourced from Ave Hardware, for this.

Step 4: Seconds Wheel

Picture of Seconds Wheel

Because the seconds wheel moves continuously, unlike the other wheels which lock into place, the seconds wheel is best made as a cylinder. I made mine in six sections. You could use a bandsaw to make sections like this, or possibly turn a complete cylinder on a lathe.

Step 5: Frame

Picture of Frame

The numerals wheels are supported on a frame made up of several pieces screwed together. I used 3/4" oak for my frame pieces.

7/32" brass tubing is used for shafts and 1/4" brass tubing for bushings. The larger tube slides over the smaller tube allowing the wheels to turn with little friction. I got my tubing at the local Ace hardware.

The tens of minutes wheel fits in between the two arms. The minutes ones wheel rides on a shaft protruding from the right arm. The hours wheel rides on a shaft protruding from the left arm.

Step 6: Spring Arms

Picture of Spring Arms

Spring-loaded arms ride on cams on each of the hours, tens of minutes, and minute wheels to hold the digits in place after they move. I machined the arms and brackets out of oak. The small springs came from my local Ace hardware store. The arms are adjustable for both tension and position. Too much tension causes strain on the motor; to little causes the digits to be misaligned when at rest. The position adjustment allows the wheels to be rotated slightly so that faces of the visible digits are aligned.

To set the time, you just reach into the back of the clock and manually rotate the wheels.

Step 7: Motor

Picture of Motor

The clock is driven by a 1 rpm synchronous motor. These can be sourced from time clock parts suppliers. A separate motor mount is used to hold the motor and seconds drum in place. Electrical wires run through the mount to the underside of the clock's base and are hidden. A cover hides the motor. These motors run quite hot, so ventilation slots are needed. These parts were all machined from 3/4" oak and glued and screwed together.

Step 8: Case

Picture of Case

A case and faceplate finish off the clock. A wide variety of case styles may be used. I emulated a classic case, but built one with ribbed top and sides so that the clock's mechanism remains visible.

A wide variety of stains and finishes may also be used. I used Minwax wood stain and Minwax clear satin polyurethane.


Waynewhitney made it! (author)2016-07-26

I think your clock is amazing! I wanted to build the mechanism without a case. I don't have a CNC (yet!), so I tried it with conventional power tools. I built a couple of the parts at 1:1 scale, but found it to be a little bit too large. I decreased the plans by 50%. I needed to use thinner stock for some parts and had to modify some leaf switches to use as "arms" for the click stops. Here is the result, with a dollar bill next to it for scale.

DickB1 (author)Waynewhitney2016-07-26

Great job on your clock! The leaf switch modification is cool. The open case also lets people see into the mechanism.

DickB1 (author)2015-03-20

I got a question on motor sources. Motors can be sourced from time clock repair suppliers like this one: I used the 1RPM CCW Acroprint motor.

mjm1999 (author)2015-03-14

thanks a lot

walter.warren1 (author)2015-01-25

Holy ... ! That's gorgeous! I want one too. Have the CNC and laser cutting machines become a dime a dozen or something? Seems like everybody's using them anymore. Good luck in the wood contest.

Tecwyn Twmffat (author)2015-01-25

I actually prefer your wood gear clock, but this is great too! I hope you win the grand prize as I know from 1st hand experience how much work there is in CNC.

Jule (author)2015-01-14

As a electrical engineer and hobby wood worker/DIY enthusiast( I made 2 guitars and many other smaller projects out of wood - I just love working with wood) I like to see these kind of creations.

I have to say your Numechron is simple jaw dropping beautiful!

I am building myself a small CNC and I will definately try to make this!

steinie44 (author)2015-01-01

The two arms seem to be too long. Had to scale them down .75%, Also The Spring Arms seem to be too short. Seems like all 5 arms should be almost the same length? I have the drawings completed, and starting the build with the frame and Tens Wheel.

DickB1 (author)steinie442015-01-01

You're right about the two frame arms. I'm not sure about the spring arms yet - I will check. Converting the digital Carvewright files to graphic patterns involves some manual steps and I obviously made a mistake or two. I will try to get these corrected as soon as possible.

DickB1 (author)DickB12015-01-06

I corrected the scale of the frame arms in the Numechron templates pdf document, and also added a side view showing the wheels and frame arms respective to one another.

steinie44 (author)2014-12-18

Very nice. Want to make this. Three questions. In the PDF, I don't see the Gear for the right side of the minutes wheel. What size are the carry over pins? I can't get the rule to scale, but adding 1/8 inch to the wheel sides, the sides appear to be to scale. I started to draw it up in SketchUp, before I saw the PDF. However I guessed the numbers were 1.5 high and 1" wide. Oh well, back to page 1. I have a plug in for SketchUp that will generate Gcode for a CNC Machine.

DickB1 (author)2014-12-18

Thanks, and thanks for pointing out the missing part. I have added it to page 6.

On my computer, when printing pdf files I have options such as Fit, Shrink oversize pages, and Actual size. If I click on Actual size, it does print to the correct scale. I suppose if you're only off by 1/8", everything should scale the same, so if you use the templates as is everything should work. Just make the numerals a bit smaller too.

nextpt (author)2014-12-18

Great work congratulations :)

rgonzalez52 (author)2014-12-12

i like it but for me is a fake handcraft. i you were make it whitout cnc machine. i would be proud of your hands and brain. i hope one day do stuff by your self out cnc machinery. like the original ones they really was people behind the tools using they real skills. not the computer skills. thats not fair for those proyects that really use handtools. and even more cuz prices are for smart people not smart laptops. i hope you understand and use your hands.

DickB1 (author)rgonzalez522014-12-12

Thank you for your opinion.

I have been a woodworker since I was a kid in my dad's shop. Like many, I started out with a few simple hand tools, and added to my skills and suite of tools over time - power drill, table saw, power sander. I got my CNC machine about 5 years ago, and it has allowed me to work projects that I could not otherwise do, much like the table saw and drill press facilitated projects otherwise not possible. It is another woodworking tool. There are woodworkers who continue to make dovetail joints by hand, but I suspect today many more use a router and jig. Some of us have added CNC machines to our woodworking tool suite. I think that, for those who have not used one, the perception is that you just push a button and everything is done for you. That is not the case. You do need to learn and master new and different skills to design and build well with a CNC, but these skills supplement the traditional woodworking skills and tools, they don't replace them.

My shop tagline is "Digital AND traditional design and woodworking".

zholy (author)DickB12014-12-18

Nicely said...CNC it's not just pressing a button and there is no problem with using it.
I understand the opinion of "Rgonzalez52"... there is the magic in handcrafted items, but this is not the case. This was hand made as well !!! The CNC was just a tool as any other.

Well done. The clock looks really great !!!

swmech (author)DickB12014-12-12

An excellent answer, and a gorgeous piece of work. Thank you for sharing it!

wquoyle (author)rgonzalez522014-12-13

From my experience, you're not going to pull off something like this unless you have great basic woodworking skills, the mill is just another tool to be mastered and not a 'cheat'.

So, hats off to the author, a beautiful piece of work.

Lionverse (author)2014-12-17


DickB1 (author)2014-12-16

I added a pdf file of templates which can be used to build parts for this clock using conventional tools such as a scroll saw. Some of the parts will need to be fabricated a bit differently from the way I did using my CNC, so naturally some parts will not look identical to the ones in the photos, but they will be quite similar and be functionally equivalent.

rgonzalez52 (author)2014-12-13

i bet you to do it whitout electricity. whos the best carver? if you win. now you gonna feel proud of your skills.
or put a challenge. i coud compete to you on anything about real woodworking. im 24 years old and i have a nice cnc machine hands whitout electricity. i give you a real challenge for your kind of shoes you are wearing.

DickB1 (author)rgonzalez522014-12-13

Great! You should enter the contest!

I8mAll (author)2014-12-13

I think the it is lovely beyond anything I could create. So naturally I am a little envious. It is pleasing in so many ways, what a great combination of skills. Like luqui82 I would love to build one, I would even try to tell friends it was mine but I would have to confess in the end. How about scanning the drawings?

luqui82 (author)2014-12-13

Can you post stl files for making a 3d print of this clock?

DickB1 (author)luqui822014-12-13

No, sorry. The parts were designed using the Carvewright Designer software, which uses a proprietary file format. I do not have the capability to export to STL and DXF.

I intend to put the files into the Carvewright Pattern Depot (you would need a Carvewright machine to us them), but I have some tweaking to do, and I am not able to get to this for a while.

I am looking into converting the files to paper templates so that the parts could be built with conventional tools. I did this with one other project. It is possible but time consuming. Again, I can't promise when I will get to this.

cfs0527 (author)2014-12-12

would the drawings you would offer be useful to someone who wanted to make this with ordinary shop tools?

DickB1 (author)cfs05272014-12-12

Yes, from drawings this clock could be built with more conventional tools. For example, if you look at the tens of minutes wheel in Step 4, you see that the left side of the wheel has been machined from a single piece of 3/4" oak. But it could also be made by layering separate pieces made from say 1/4" Baltic birch cut with a scroll saw.

It is possible to create paper template patterns from the files that I have, but it is time consuming. I will try to do this and post them as soon as I am able.

tysonvw (author)2014-12-12

This thing is amazing! Very well done and keep them coming!

john henry (author)2014-12-11

it looks nice and shows mechanics of older clocks and simular systems.
also i dont see how this could be called "Digital" just because it shows numbers doesn't itself make it digital.

M!key (author)john henry2014-12-12

A digital clock is one which displays the time using numbers as opposed to an analog clock, which uses hands to indicate the time. Lovely job Dick.

john henry (author)M!key2014-12-12

I was looking at the mechanics rather than the output.
as it needs the seconds dial to spin continuously i assumed its was analog.

DickB1 (author)john henry2014-12-12

Thanks. Actually, one of the definitions of "digital" is "providing a readout in numerical digits", and Merriam Webster even specifically defines it as "showing the time with numbers instead of with hour and minute hands", so I think the term applies.

john henry (author)DickB12014-12-12

I only looked at wiki to make sure and it didn't mention anything having to do with using numbers in meaning its digital.
the difference between how this clock operates and one with hands is almost the exactly the same. i was looking at the thing as a whole and not just the output.

Also I have also been under the impression that analog has some kind of mechanical operation as opposed to being all electronic meaning digital.
now it looks like the difference is like putting a label on an object that works and/or looks exactly the same as another and calling it something else.
as you can see how someone could be confused by the two.
i guess i must of have been taught the wrong deffinitions.

stoobers (author)john henry2014-12-12

The resolution of each field (except the "second" wheel) is rounded off to a whole value (in this case, it is the floor, or rounded down). This is the essence of digital - come up with a rounded off value and display it boldly, sometimes even by making it look like you have not rounded off.

You could describe the "second" wheel as analog, as there is no round-off. Sometimes the "second" wheel is covered up and not shown. This is also how "bushel counters" work on grain harvesters, and how the odometer works in a car, be it a lcd output or a mechcanical output. If your car odometer has no wheel displaying continuous movement, you can be sure somewhere there is a rotating shaft, turning continuously, that is only updating at some whole value.

john henry (author)stoobers2014-12-12

i know the mechanics of these systems and what other things use it.
its simple really.

Greasetattoo (author)2014-12-12

GREAT project!
No files?
Would love to have the files so I could make one!

pc1975 (author)2014-12-12

This is gorgeous!

alinke (author)2014-12-11

wow, this is awesome and I have a Carvewright too, can't wait!

wobbler (author)2014-12-11

This is a brilliant re-invention of the old patent, which it was nice to see included. I particularly like how it looks like a bit of a mystery clock as the hours and minute hands actually look more like some kind of flap or paddle mechanism by being flat rather than a wheel.

raypsi (author)2014-12-11

These kind of clocks are sweet.

I had a Japanese knock off version, that used Rolodex type numbers flipping on a wheel, after about 10 years the motor needed maintenance badly, as the bearings dried up from continuous use. tyvm for sharing and gr8 job for sure

oaberaldo (author)2014-12-11

as Shakespeare would say:

O brave new world,. That has such people in 't!


The Green Gentleman (author)2014-12-11

Wow, that's not at all pretty, or cool mechanically, or totally dispiriting to other people who like to make things, but don't want to feel like their projects look like they were made by lazy six-year-old children when compared to your lousy, stinkin', horribly well-executed and beautiful clock. I feel like Cinderella, after her step-sisters tore her pretty pink dress, and was stuck at home staring at the palace from her garret.


Cinderelly cinderelly, lighten up some cinderelly!

Wow, beautiful job!

clazman (author)2014-12-11

Absolutely beautiful. F. Greenewalt would be very pleased, to say the least.

And yes, what a dust trap! lol

Needs a large wood and glass case, of course with the same "period" design.

shizumadrive (author)2014-12-11

Beautiful clock. seems like it would be easy to replace with parts made of different materials for a different look as well

BillyS1 (author)2014-12-10

Would you share the pattern files?

DickB1 (author)BillyS12014-12-11

I intend to release the files as a project in the Carvewright Pattern Depot, but have not done that yet.

tomatoskins (author)2014-12-09

This is simply amazing! If you have the dementions of all the parts I'd love to see them.

DickB1 (author)tomatoskins2014-12-11

The parts were all designed using the Carvewright Designer software, so one would need the software and the files to get the dimensions. I intend to release the files as a project in the Carvewright Pattern Depot, but have not done that yet.

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