Introduction: Outdoor LED Landscape Lighting
These lamps are my own design, but probably inspired by some of the work of Frank Lloyd Wright. I made them to replace the black plastic low voltage lights that are so typical in the U.S. These lamps have an interesting way of reflecting the light off the inner surface of the top. They look really cool when it starts to get dark out.
The four posts in the corners are made from Sipo. Sipo is an African wood, also known as Utile. It has characteristics that are similar to mahogany, so it is a good choice to be used outdoors where weather resistance is important.
The grilles are made from 1/4" walnut an they have slots cut in them to allow the light to shine through.
The angled top is made from Spanish cedar. Its lighter color is a good choice to reflect the light.
Step 1: Materials You Will Need
- I made 2 lamps, so I needed enough wood to make 8 posts. I used Sipo for the posts, but any rot-resistant wood will be fine (cedar, black locust, black walnut, white oak, mahogany, teak, etc.). Figure on about 132" of 2"x2" posts for each lamp (2 posts that are 36" and 2 posts that are 30").
- Wood for the tops. I used Spanish cedar to take advantage of its lighter color. You'll need a piece that's about 18" x 10 1/2" for each lamp. The wood I used was about 7/8" thick, but 3/4" would be fine.
- Wood for the bottom. I used Sipo for the bottom that was about 12" x 12" and 1/2" thick. You'll need one of these for each lamp that you make.
- Wood for the grilles. I used an 8/4" piece of walnut that I sliced on the band saw into roughly 1/2" slices that I planed down to 1/4". The grilles were about 10" x 17" x 1/4". You'll need four of these for each lamp that you make.
Step 2: Tools You Will Need
- Table Saw
- Band Saw to cut the corner posts and to slice the grilles. You may be able to get your lumber yard to do this for you.
- Circular Saw (table saw or hand saw will be fine if you do not have one)
- Planer (not required if you can get your lumber yard to mill the wood to the thickness you need)
- Router table is highly recommended but not absolutely necessary
- 3/8" spiral upcut router bit
- 1/8" spiral upcut router bit
- Dado set (highly recommended but not mandatory)
- 1 3/4" or 1 7/8" Forstner bit
- Sharp knife
- Electrical box
- Straight edge
Step 3: Cut the Rough Length of the Wood for the Posts
I cut the Sipo to a rough length of 30" for the posts at the front and 36" for the posts at the back. These are just the rough lengths of the post and will be long enough to accommodate a 20 degree angle for the top.
I am making two lamps, so there will be eight posts in all -- four front posts and four at the back.
Step 4: Cut the Posts
On the band saw, I cut the legs to be a little over 2" wide, with the goal of having the final legs planed to be 2" square.
Step 5: Resaw the Walnut Into Thin Pieces
I used a piece of walnut that was 8/4" thick and about 10 1/2" wide.
I used the band saw to re-saw it to almost 1/2" thick so that the final planed dimension would be 1/4". I could definitely feel the saw working. It would have been easier if I had a carbide blade. In this case I used a regular 1/2" blade that was fairly new.
The final pieces will be 17 1/2" x 10 1/2" x 1/4".
Step 6: Plane the Walnut and Cut to the Final Width
I planed the walnut down to 1/4" thick and then cut it to width -- about 10" wide.
Step 7: Route the Slots in the Walnut Grilles
Using a 3/8" spiral up-cut bit in the router, with stops attached to the ends of the router table, I routed three vertical slots into the walnut. These slots would allow the light to shine through.
Step 8: Cut Notches in the Sides of the Walnut Grilles
I used my dado set to cut notches in the sides of the walnut. This would create additional slots along the edges for the light to escape. It would also create 3 tabs on each side that would attach to the corner posts.
You may have noticed that the grille in the photo has only two slots cut into it. That's because I made a mistake and cut the first slot in the wrong place. I was able to recover by adjusting this design. I purposely made two pieces like this to go onto the back of each lamp.
I cut 20 degree dadoes near the top of each post to hold the Spanish cedar top in place. The angle serves two purposes: it allows the rainfall to run off the top; and it provides a nice reflective surface on the underside of the top panel for the LED light to reflect outwards.
I also cut 90 degree dadoes that will be used to hold the bottom board in place. The bottom is used to hold the LED light in place. I used blue tape on the posts to help prevent tear-out.
Step 10: Drill Hole for the LED Light
I cut a 1 3/4" hole in the bottom board using a Forstner bit. It's a perfect size to hold the LED light in place. 1 7/8" would work too, but be careful that you don't make the hole too big. A 2" hole would be too big. It's held in place just with gravity.
Attach an electrical box to the underside of the bottom to hold the electrical connections and keep them protected from the elements.
Step 11: Cut the Acrylic Sheet (Optional)
I used a knife to score the acrylic sheet. This will be inserted into slots in the legs to help protect against the weather. The pieces need to be roughly 17.5" high x 9.5" wide.
The acrylic is considered to be optional. It will help to protect the bulb from the rain and snow, but it is not absolutely necessary. Eliminating the acrylic sheet is a good way to save on costs (and work).
Step 12: Route Slots in the Posts for the Acrylic Sheets
If you choose to use the acrylic sheets, you will need to route slots in each of the posts. Be careful to mark the posts so that you route the slots on the correct side of each post. Each post will have two slots routed into it. I chose to cut the acrylic sheets to be 17 1/2" high, so the slots need to be the same length.
I used a 1/8" router bit to cut slots into the legs to hold the acrylic sheets.
The acrylic was 0.110" and the bit was 0.125", so it was perfect. I ran the router on the slowest speed and was very careful because it's easy to break a router bit that is so thin.
Step 13: Assemble the Lamps
Insert the acrylic sheets into the posts. It's a little tricky to do this without a helper to provide an extra pair of hands, but I managed to do it alone.
Then insert the bottom and the top into the dadoes and screw the posts into the bottom and the top to hold everything together.
Step 14: Apply a Coat of Finish to the Interior Side of the Grilles Prior to Assembly
I applied a spar urethane to the inside of each of the grilles. This was an important because it will be impossible to apply finish after it's assembled due to the acrylic sheets that block access to the inside of the walnut.
Step 15: Cut the Mortises for the Grille Tabs
I carefully marked the mortises for the walnut tabs using a knife and a chisel. I positioned the grille onto the posts so that the bottom of the grille was about 6" from the bottom of the posts.
Then I used the router with a 3/8" spiral up-cut bit to cut the mortises for the walnut tabs. I cleaned up the mortises with a chisel and end up with a tight fit.
Step 16: Glue the Grilles Onto the Posts
It took me about 30 minutes to prepare the mortises for each side. Then I glued and clamped the walnut in place.
I was a little aggressive and left them clamped for only 30 minutes while I prepared the next side, and then removed the clamps so that I could clamp up the next side. Then I let everything sit overnight so that the glue could cure.
Step 17: Mount Each Lamp Onto a Patio Stone
I decided to set the lamps on top of patio stones so that the legs will not be in direct contact with the soil.
I first drilled holes into the corners of the patio stones (after marking the position of each leg). Then I set the lamps in place and drilled a 1/4" hole up into the legs. I used 3 1/2" 1/4" bolts that extend from the bottom of the patio stone into each leg. There is a nut that holds the bolt in place, and it also maintains separation between the wooden leg and the patio stone.
Step 18: Wire Up the Lights
Step 19: Turn on the Lights and Test
Turn on the power to the lights to make sure they are wired correctly. You will be pleased by how they look! I am really happy with the design and the way the light reflects off the Spanish cedar.
If you'd like to watch me make these, you can follow along on YouTube by clicking here.