PINGBot is the Explorer Robot that uses an ultrasonic sensor to be able to dodge objects present in its path.
The ultrasonic sensor emits pulses at a frequency of 40KHz (imperceptible to the human ear and animals), these pulses when hitting an object, they are reflected and return to the sensor after a certain time; knowing the total time round the wrists and the speed of sound in the medium (the air), it is easy to calculate the distance traveled by the wrists and thus determine the distance of the object relative to the sensor.
See the post about PING sensor for details in https://www.instructables.com/id/Basic-Principles/
We will use the same chassis of the BUGBot https://www.instructables.com/id/Basic-Principles/
... but currently with a dual H-BRIDGE / L298H to control two DC motors (control direction and speed), which will give greater flexibility to our prototype.
The basic operation is as follows:
When booting the robot will remain stopped and the sensor calculates the distance FRONT, RIGHT and LEFT, he will compare these distance with a threshold distance (i.e.20 cm) so it can decide which is the best way to forward (the longest path will always be the best option! ).
After that the Robot will begin to running forward until the moment they will find an object interfering with your progress (it should approach the maximum limit up to a distance, in inches, of the object), when it happens: it will stop and analise again distances: FRONT, RIGHT and LEFT, so he could again decide which is the best way to forward - returning again to the operating cycle.