Introduction: PVC -- It's Great for Inventions

Picture of PVC  --  It's Great for Inventions

PVC, polyvinyl chloride, is a thermoplastic. It softens with heat and rigidifies when it cools again. While soft, it can be bent and even stretched into molds. Cold, it can be sawed, filed, drilled, scraped, or whittled with a knife.

PVC material can be found at most hardware stores in the form of plumbing pipe. I find it to be inexpensive, especially when I consider all the things that can be done with it -- musical instruments, repairs, tools and toys to name a few.

It is resistant to sunlight damage, has a degree of flexibility, is fairly strong, and is electrically non-conductive.

This is a very valuable material for use in inventions; one that very few people seem to be have experience with.

The picture below shows some of the shapes it is possible to make with PVC.

Step 1: Safety While Heating PVC

Picture of Safety While Heating PVC

We love plastics for what they do for us, but plastic manufacture and decay tend to pollute the environment and negatively affect our health.

Vinyl Chloride, one of the components of PVC, is carcinogenic. When it is locked up in the polymer, however, it is much safer to be around. In my years of experience working with PVC, I have not noticed any adverse effects on my health from being around it.

Always work in areas with good ventilation. If you do get caught in a cloud of smoke, hold your breath and move to clean air.

When heating PVC with a gas stove or propane torch, try not to let it burn. Smoke from burning PVC is bad. With experience one burns it less and less. Don't panic the first time you do burn some. It scorches, but doesn't immediately burst into flame. Move the material away from the flame and try again. Don't breathe the smoke. Smoke avoidance comes naturally for most people.

While heating PVC over a gas flame, keep the plastic an appropriate distance from the flame to avoid scorching the surface before the inside can warm up. It takes time for heat to travel to the center of the material being heated.

Keep the plastic moving, and keep an eye on the state of the plastic. When heated, the PVC material is flexible, like leather. Beyond this stage, you risk scorching it.

A word from James, the plastic engineer -- "Just a word of warning, PVC can handle some high heats but if it catches fire, you wont be able to put it out, it does not need oxygen to burn so don't do this inside".

I do work inside, but my house is made of cement and has good ventilation. MAKE SURE THAT YOU HAVE GOOD VENTILATION. PLAY WITH FIRE -- CAREFULLY.

Step 2: Using Lacquer Thinner to Remove Lettering

Picture of Using Lacquer Thinner to Remove Lettering

Inventions look nicer without stray lettering on them.

When pipe leaves the factory, it is printed with information about the pipe. Fortunately, a little lacquer thinner and a piece of toilet paper will usually remove the lettering, or most of it.

Lacquer thinner vapors are not good to breathe. Make sure you have good ventilation. Only a small amount of thinner is needed to wet the wad of toilet paper. I poked a small hole in the plug under the cap when I bought the new can, instead of removing the whole plug. That way, I only get the thinner I need, and release the minimum amount of vapors into the air.

Step 3: Flattening PVC

Picture of Flattening PVC

To make a flat sheet of PVC to work with, cut a section of pipe and cut the pipe section down one side. Hold it with pliers and heat it over a gas stove.

When the plastic heats up, it will unroll itself and feel like a piece of leather. Place it on the floor and put a piece of plywood, or some other flat object on top of it until it cools. When it cools, it rigidifies again, and you have a flat sheet to work with.

Use a gas stove to heat large areas. Use a propane torch to heat small areas.

The photo below shows a narrow strip of pipe being flattened.

Step 4: Bending PVC

Picture of Bending PVC

In the dust pan shown below, the square body was folded from a flat pattern.

The handle was formed by hand, pressing the heated plastic around a piece of pipe. Protect your hands from hot plastic by using rags.

To speed the hardening of hot plastic, you can cool it quickly with water. I sometimes hold projects under a faucet, use a spray bottle, or sponge them with a wet sponge.

Step 5: Using Molds

Picture of Using Molds

A mold is a shape that is used to create another shape. In the case of the toilet paper roll holder shown below, the hole at the end of the central pipe served as the "female" part of the mold. The ball of a ball peen hammer served as the "male" part of the mold. Between the two of them, they forced the flat plastic into a domed shape. When the PVC cooled, it hardened again.

The dome locks into the end of the pipe section upon which the roll of toilet paper spins.

Step 6: Example: Scissors Handles

Picture of Example: Scissors Handles

Separate instructables could be done for each of the objects shown here. My goal here is to give you a broad overview of what you can do and to inspire you to invent whatever it is you need.

My fingers didn't fit in the handles of these tiny sewing scissors. I solved the problem by making larger handles and attaching them to the smaller handles. Just fold over the plastic and press hard until it cools.

Step 7: Example: Cup Holder

Picture of Example:  Cup Holder

These are two cup holders mounted near my computer desk. It is nice to avoid spilling liquids onto the computer keyboard.

Step 8: Examples: in the Kitchen

Picture of Examples:  in the Kitchen

PVC has solved a lot of problems for me in the kitchen. Move your cursor around the picture to get the details.

Step 9: Examples: Handles

Picture of Examples:  Handles

PVC is smooth, and fits comfortably in the hand. It is great for making handles for things. Just heat the end of the pipe, jam it over what is left of the old handle and squeeze tightly until the plastic cools.

Step 10: Example: Fruit Pickers

Picture of Example:  Fruit Pickers

A friend gave me a light weight fiberglass sailboat mast, which makes a great picking pole. I made an adapter for the end so I could use it with different fruit picker heads.

One has gardening shears mounted on the end. Pulling strings open and closes the jaws. I can cut small branches with it.

The other pole uses a two pole system to open and close a pair of scissors. I use it to snip the stems of fruit.

Step 11: Examples: Mixed

Picture of Examples:  Mixed

This is a collection of left over odds and ends.

I think that when the inventors in the Instructables community start playing with this material more there will be an explosion of new ideas.

"Necessity is the mother of invention." See what you need and try to make it.


AeroSpaceWatercraft (author)2016-04-28

A word from James, the plastic engineer -- "Just a word of warning, PVC can handle some high heats but if it catches fire, you wont be able to put it out, it does not need oxygen to burn so don't do this inside".

Um wrong Jimmy. I've been able to extinguish burning PVC by dunking it in a tub of water!


Seems it DOES require oxygen to burn, and more so than a great many many other alternative materials.

Ian McDonald-Wallington (author)2016-11-20

Just a quick question, I have an old twin cassette deck boom box which is run by the plastic wheels with the teeth on them and not by belt like they used to be in the past before my system came in to production in 1988. Some of the teeth have come off of the wheels where they have become so brittle and fragile over the years and need replacing for my system to work properly again, I will need to make the wheels as I can not replace them, Philips, the manufacturer of the system no longer have the model listed on their system so they can not give any info either. I have spare sheets of UPVC from cuttings that are the same thickness as the wheels so rather than place any danger of poisoning, pollution or fire, rather than trying to melt it in to molds of the wheels will it be better to make the molds, use Ally or another kind of mettle to make the wheels and then once they cool properly use them as guides to cut the wheels from the UPVC instead? It will take a lot longer but would this be the better and safest idea?

Hi Ian,

You are out of my ballpark here, but I would be tempted to shape the wheel directly, maybe carving the teeth with an x-acto knife into the edge of the wheels. Maybe you could drill the center hole, run a bolt through it as a shaft for a drill press chuck and file the wheel as it spins, to center the circle, and then sharpen up the knife as much as possible for the detail cutting of the teeth. Probably would take more time than it is worth, and might not work, at that.

Good luck with whatever you try.

stevo_socal (author)2016-09-14

I have a few questions. I want to melt pvc pipe into solid bar 2" x 2"

My idea is to place the pvc pipe into a 1 1/2 inch x 6 foot galvanized steel pipe (aka fence pole) then dig a 6 foot trench, suspend the pipe over a fire in the trench and melt the pvc down.

(I plan on filling both ends of the galvanized with tin foil balls so that none of the pvc material leaks out.)

How long should I keep the pipes over the flames so that I have completely melted the pvc inside so that its evenly melted and there are no air bubbles etc?

Will it complicate the melting process if I slide a small pvc pipe into a larger one and melt both at the same time to achieve a thicker solid stock?

funny1048 (author)stevo_socal2016-09-26

you can do this with hdpe which is a different type of plastic than pvc and its found everywhere for instance milk jugs, detergent bottles, shampoo bottles and pretty much any plastic bottle in your house. anyways it is much safer and less toxic to melt than pvc and i have had lots of luck melting it into boards and plastic lumber in a toaster oven. make sure you have a mold such as one made out of wood that you can clamp under pressure as the plastic melts down to the consistency of taffy which requires pressure. and always melt it in a toaster oven rather than a fire as melting it in a fire will burn and ruin the plastic and may smell bad.

Thinkenstein (author)stevo_socal2016-09-14

You contemplate an experiment that I would not perform. I have no experience melting PVC, but I doubt it would get runny without first catching fire, especially if the escaping gasses are close to the flame. I imagine that, industrially, the viscous material is pumped into molds under pressure. You would probably be interested in this link.

darius76 (author)2016-06-21

what about pouring melted pvc on the back of solar cells to encapsulate them ?

Thinkenstein (author)darius762016-06-21

Sounds pretty toxic, risky, and potentially damaging to the solar cells. It might not even melt to pouring consistency.

bowmaster (author)2010-01-17

Take a 12 inch piece of 1 inch diameter PVC, stuff it with C-4, a put a blasting cap on one or both ends.

n0ukf (author)bowmaster2010-01-23

What's the point of both ends?

bowmaster (author)n0ukf2010-01-25

More compression on the C-4.

SIRJAMES09 (author)bowmaster2014-09-28

and IF, if you live to tell about it, you get a free ticket to the federal pen for about 10 yrs or more....not my idea of fun.

rhrussell7 (author)SIRJAMES092016-05-03

And, you also get a Darwin Award.

raziehberah (author)2016-01-17

hi, i wanna make a PVC Mold it a good idea?if it is, should i add some additive?and how should i do ? do i need a performer?as u see i am a so fresh man in this feild.

With my years of experience using plastics, PVC is the last plastic you want to mold anything with at home. To mold PVC, you would need the right temperature, pressures, and molds made of aluminum to make a "sculpture". You simply can't melt a PVC pipe or sheeting down to a syrup and pour into a mold and hope for the best.

You can heat it and bend it sure. You can also heat it and smash it flat and even curl it. But it make a sculpture of an angel, car, or whatever you have in mind, forget it.

If you are hellbent on making a sculpture from plastic, you can also look into vacu-molding. HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) sheeting is your best plastic for that.

Thinkenstein (author)raziehberah2016-01-17

I'm not sure what you mean by "PVC Mold sculpture". Making a complex mold out of PVC plastic is beyond my abilities. Filling a mold with liquid PVC plastic is also beyond my abilities. I think you would probably need a performer of miracles to do either without high-tech equipment.

tvazquez2 (author)2015-11-03

Awesome instructable!

As for bending PVC pipe with a gas stove: in today's economy (especially in Puerto Rico) gas is precious, therefore I would be conservative as possible and just use the stove for cooking.

I've seen other methods for bending PVC pipe, with heat guns. My favorite is the Hot Sand method, as shown in this video...

...the guy in this video used a hand-held torch to heat the sand in a pie tin, and then he poured the hot sand into the PVC pipe through a funnel. This enabled the PVC pipe to bend without losing its cylinder form at the bend while the hot sand is still inside the PVC pipe. Thick heat-resistant safety gloves MUST be worn during this process. Once you achieve the desired angle of the bend, release the sand from the PVC pipe and let the pipe cool down to hold its new angled bend. This can be done outdoors where the breeze will cool the PVC pipe down. You can also dip the PVC pipe in tap water, or spray it with water, to speed up the cool-down process.

Just my .02 cents. :-)

Thinkenstein (author)tvazquez22015-11-03

Hi there. Thanks for your good thoughts.

I don't do much cooking on the stove, so I don't use much gas, but I do know it is wasteful of gas to use a big stove flame for small projects. It would be best to redesign the flame, to have it only where it is needed; a short straight line instead of a big round circle. It would be cool to maybe use methane from a sceptic tank as fuel.

The heated sand idea is interesting, but you are heating and softening the whole pipe, instead of just the bend. I do use sand for bends, to keep the interior diameter expanded.

Best might be to have an oven with controlled temperature (not burning the material). I could see a hole in one side of the oven to enter the pipe and a hole on the other side as an exit hole, so you could heat only part of the pipe -- or all of it if the oven was longer.

At one time I thought of long ovens to bend pipe to make furniture and other things.

My father once bent some PVC cane handles using sawdust, since we had no sand. It worked well.

Thanks for your communication.

jcl236 (author)2009-07-23

Just a word of warning, PVC can handle some high heats but if it catches fire, you wont be able to put it out, it does not need oxygen to burn so don't do this inside. James -The plastic engineer

PeterV25 (author)jcl2362015-09-14

Patently wrong information jcl236. PVC is naturally self-extinguishing.

SIRJAMES09 (author)jcl2362014-09-28

I have a workshop with a HUGE exhaust fan that replaces 1 window...the workshop is built from cinder blocks & has a concrete floor.....

I do not worry about having a fire or fumes in my workshop....with a 12 foot ceiling of wood, anything under 6 foot in height, can not burn.

Besides, I always err on the side of caution.

Thinkenstein (author)jcl2362009-07-23

Interesting. When it does start to burn, the natural reaction is to pull back from the fire, so I doubt it would ever do flash combustion on anybody. I have always worked indoors, but my house has good ventilation. I can see where your warning would carry more weight in colder climates, where houses are closed up. I'll try to include your warning on my warning page. Thanks for the info. By the way, I do a lot of work with a combination of nylon fishnet and cement, what I call nylon-cement. See my website house photos, A plasterable plastic mesh is useful. Can you think of any way to recycle trash plastic into a plasterable mesh material?

fkenneth made it! (author)2014-04-25

Experimenting with DIY PVC pipe projects. I always use my hairdryer to make curves.

fkenneth (author)fkenneth2014-12-05

My PVC conduit projects.

xproplayer (author)2009-08-12

could i use a hot plate for heating?

Thinkenstein (author)xproplayer2009-08-18

I have never tried using a hot plate.

SIRJAMES09 (author)Thinkenstein2014-09-28

now this is just my 2 cents worth on this hotplate thing...

as heat rises from its source, it looses temperature(cools off)....

so knowing this, it is my uneducated opinion that a hot plate could never get PVC hot enough(with any consistency) to make much of anything..

but as I said, I am uneducated in this field of making things from PVC.

Tenz (author)2009-12-11

Have you given thought to using Hot water to soften the parts instead of fire. to me it would seem more safe

SIRJAMES09 (author)Tenz2014-09-28

water can not get hot enough to mold PVC in to any kind of shapes unless you have a boiler(commercial boiler)....

I could be wrong, but if I remember correctly, 250 degrees F. is about as hot as a home water system gets....which is not hot enough to melt PVC.

hyratel (author)2010-01-28

what thickness pipe is this, and what outer diameter? I am mostly finding stuff of thin wall ( < 1/8" ) in sizes under an inch

SIRJAMES09 (author)hyratel2014-09-28

If you go to this website:

It will explain in some detail what size pipe to use for what project & also tell you the actual sizes of the PVC pipe(inside diameters & outside diameters).

Thinkenstein (author)hyratel2010-01-29

I think this dust pan was schedule 40. 

It can be frustrating to not find the thickness you want.  1/2" CPVC for hot water fits inside thin wall 1/2" PVC, but not inside schedule 40.  For some projects thin wall is best and I can't find it any more around here.  I guess it turned out not to be popular with people for plumbing.   Anyway, it's all good, and it's best to have some of everything on hand. 

hyratel (author)Thinkenstein2010-01-29

I've found suppliers online who sell PVC in flat sheets (best price found yet - $3 12x12 x 1/8" ) but they only have gray, not white

reason I ask is because the big stuff (inch and up) has heavy or thick walls - and some of the really big stuff is foamcore-walls, presumably for weight reduction. any suggestions on where to look for large-dia, thin-wall?

Thinkenstein (author)hyratel2010-01-29

No suggestions.  Good luck finding what you want.  . 

agis68 (author)2010-02-28

Really nice instructable...once I met a dude he melted old CD's (BULK no Industrial) to make various things....when I wanted to teach how he do it... he vanished!

SIRJAMES09 (author)agis682014-09-28

it must have been his "trade secret" & didn't wish for anyone to know the process...LOL : )

ratty880 (author)2010-04-11

Great instructable!  You can also use PVC to make Knife covers, you heat it up, place the blade inside and then squish it flat.  The sheath fits tightly on the knife.  You can also drill holes through the sheath so the knife will dry if you put it in wet.

SIRJAMES09 (author)ratty8802014-09-27

Thank you so very much!!


I have a kitchen knife(razor blade sharp) tha I have a tendency to keep in a section of the drawer by itself because there is no sheath for it...

So TY for the idea!! : )

Thinkenstein (author)ratty8802010-04-11

Thanks for the ideas.  I also make carrying sheaths for hand saws, axes, etc.  PVC sure solves a lot of problems quickly and easily. 

cart562 (author)2012-04-19

I think it was Phil B's instructables i was looking through and one of them consisted of him putting small pieces of pipe in a pyrex cup with water in it and putting in a microwave. It was great for making small, flat pieces and I was just wondering if you have tried using a microwave before. Btw, apparently the newer Pyrex glass may explode from cooling too fast so either experiment with an old one or be cautious when removing it from the microwave for those of you who wish to try it.

SIRJAMES09 (author)cart5622014-09-27

to my knowledge, ANY GLASS that is cooled too fast will it Pyrex or not. when heating things up in an enclosed area(like a microwave oven), it is ALWAYS best to err on the side of caution....heavy leather gloves, fire resistant apron, clear face mask/safety glasses/goggles, etc. That way if anything should happen, you're covered & less prone to injury.

kirnex (author)2012-11-03

LOVE this I'ble. I'm going to have to set up a good ventilation system in my workshop just so I can try some of these ideas out!

SIRJAMES09 (author)kirnex2014-09-27

in my case, my workshop is an old garage made of cinder blocks & HUGE was originally built about 1936 or '38....

anywo, my point is, I have a exhaust fan replacing one window....the fan is about 48 inches in diameter & will do a complete air change in the garage about 3 or 4 times in about 1 - 2 hours. Fumes? what fumes?

so there's an idea for you for ventilation....when deciding what size fan, bigger is often better....especially with flammable or toxic fumes...

Figure the size you need, then add about 15% more to the size.

Thinkenstein (author)kirnex2012-11-04

Good luck. Have fun!

ludenwick (author)2014-05-29

brilliant post. lovin it. Many thanks

I_StarkGuy (author)2014-04-29

I'm just getting into PVC since the moment I wanted stronger lightsabers. And I plan on making a bow. Thanks for your tips.

By the way, you have an interesting lifestyle :)

kwongniyom (author)2013-11-25

Very Nice Idea

bfk (author)2013-07-11

Not pretty, but man, you are intense. You've made everything except pipe... But you've made pipe fit together, so I guess that counts:)

I spent my career designing, inventing and patenting vinyl products and never considered the opportunities that you've explored. You've pretty much covered PVC pipe (and impressively). Why not try your hand with some other common extruded shapes, like vinyl siding?

Thinkenstein (author)bfk2013-07-16

Thanks for the enthusiasm. As far as the vinyl siding goes, I've never seen it used here in Puerto Rico where i live. The pipe I can get in any hardware store. I have mixed feelings about promoting any plastic, but PVC solves too many problems to ignore.

About This Instructable




Bio: I'm a refugee from Los Angeles, living in backwoods Puerto Rico for about 35 years now and loving it. I built my own home ... More »
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