I enjoy making things out of used pallets. It is challenging because you are limited to what you can make based on the size of the pallet boards available to you. It's even better seeing the finished look after putting on a clear finish.
Step 1: Tools and Materials
Good, fairly clean, safe to use pallets (marked HT and not had chemicals on them)
1/4" plywood - I bought a full sheet but only used about 2/3 of it
Wood glue - gluebot not necessary but works great and a brush for spreading the glue
Dow rod - size 1/4", could be different sized if you already have one
Brad nails or staples - size will depend on the size of your pallet boards
Safety first - safety glasses, dust mask and earplugs should be used when needed
For taking apart pallets: hammer, flat pry bar, vice grips or pliers, jig saw or circular saw, dust mask
For building toy box:
Sander / sanders with 80 and 120 or 150 grit sandpaper and dust mask
Brad nailer / stapler
Clamps - various sizes
Drill and drill bits - impact driver if you have one
Pocket hole jig with screws
Circular saw - corded or cordless
Old chisel for excess glue removal or wet rags
Small hand saw for cutting dow rods
Straight edge for laying out straight panels
Step 2: Disassemble Your Pallets
I used a hammer, thin pry bar and jig saw to take my pallets apart. I cut most of the boards short, but did do several as long as I could make them for the longer sides of the toy box.
Step 3: Sand Your Boards
For my build, after sanding, I set aside each board that had a live or natural edge. I wanted to utilize these boards on the front of the toy box for a certain look.
Step 4: Layout
Try different looks to find the one which you like best. Take measurements for the boards which you will need to cut to size.
Step 5: Cut to Length
Start by squaring off one end. Then measuring from the end which was just cut, use a miter saw to cut your board to its final length. On the left side of this picture you can see how I used a stop block on my miter saw to ensure each of my boards would be cut to the same length. Best of all, I don't have to measure any more after establishing my stop block.
If you are going to cut boards at a different length, just adjust your stop block to the desired measurement.
Only cut the boards you will need. Other boards may need trimmed later.
Some boards may need ripped down to size on the table saw to fit within the desired length of the toy box.
Step 6: Begin Assembly
I used a combination of staples in my brad/stapler gun and wood glue. Glue the surfaces you intend to put together then use the stapler to hold the two pieces together. On each end make sure to use a square to keep the panel from being crooked.
While laying my project out, I had the desire to keep hidden any mechanical fasteners. These staples will be hidden by a plywood liner later. It's just a matter of thinking ahead about where to put your fasteners or to use them at all. Glue by itself will hold some of these parts together once it cures. The staples will hold it together until it cures or using clamps will achieve the same result.
The last picture shows a ledger board which is on the inside bottom of each panel. This ledger board will be used to hold up the floor of the toy box. I ripped this board in half on the table saw and used one half on each side panel, making sure that it gets attached on the inside of the panel.
There will be a total of four panels in this step. Two identical for the front and back, and two identical for the sides. Each will be assembled in the same manner.
Step 7: Attaching the Panels
This has created a box without a top or bottom as shown in the last picture.
The board across the bottom I did not attach until later in the process.
Step 8: Make a Bottom
Now it is time to make sure the box is square, or as close to square it can be made. Measure the distance from opposite corners on the top of the box then measure the other two opposite corners. If the box is square then the two measurements will be the same. If they are not, adjust the box to make it square.
Once square, measure for the panel which will make up the bottom of the toy box. Cut out the panel and sand down the edges to remove any splintering. Test fit the panel to make sure your cuts are accurate. If the panel does not fit, mark the panel where and either make adjustments with the saw or use sandpaper to smooth out the panel to fit in the space which is available. Then apply glue to each board and insert the bottom panel again. I did use a pin nailer to keep the edges down and to keep the box from going out of square.
I used 1/4" luan plywood for the interior panels. For some reason this plywood had a reddish tint to it.
Step 9: Continue With the Interior
Measure for each side panel because they will vary slightly in size and only do one panel at a time. For each one you put in, it will affect the size of the others.
As you can see in the first picture I used several clamps to glue the top portion of this interior panel. The pallet boards I used were not consistently the same size on this panel and left a gap between the boards and the plywood for the interior. The clamps held them together until the glue had time to cure, usually around 30 minutes but longer in cool or cold climates.
Step 10: Adding the Trim
I added trim to the bottom of each panel which matches the trim piece on the top of each panel.
I also added a vertical trim piece to each corner to cover up the joint where the side panels met the front and back panels.
All of these trim pieces were attached using glue and clamps.
Step 11: Final Trim Details
I made each board slightly wider than the side panels. This will allow the trim piece to overhang the sides and gives it a finished look.
I wasn't satisfied with just the glue alone in the pieces. To keep with my desire to not see any fasteners, I drilled holes through the boards into the side panels. Then I added glue the the holes and hammered dows into the holes, these were purposely left longer than the holes I drilled. Then I used a saw to trim off the extra length on each dow. Now the dows add extra strength to hold the boards in place.
This accomplished two things. First it made the top frame more structurally sound since the dows extend into the vertical panels. Secondly, it allowed me to fasten the top without using nails, staples or screws which would have been seen.
There was also a crack in the top frame. I mixed up some sawdust and wood glue then spread it and forced it into the crack. This will make the crack less noticeable.
After all of the glue had dried, I had several spots where the glue ran down the boards. I used an old chisel to remove the dried glue. Wiping off the glue with a wet rag before it dries is easier, but I did not notice these until it had already dried up.
Step 12: Final Sanding / Finishing
Once I was done sanding I used compressed air to remove any remaining dust. Then I wiped down the entire box with a damp rag to remove any remaining dust.
Once it dries it is ready for the finish. I used a spray clear coat. I wanted to be able to see the variations in each board and let the character stand out. You could use any finish you like.
Step 13: Finished Project
I made this toy box for my nephew. He was ecstatic when he got it. He was proud that he would now have a place to put his toys. He even told me I did a good job, and that made it worthwhile.