I started making these stepping stones this spring so decided to publish. I use a hotwire machine as can be seen in my other instructables on that subject. I find so many uses for the hotwire technique I don't know how a craftsperson can be without one! So many things, so much fun, very worth while! See "Hotwire Magic" on this site to get up to speed.
Step 1: Materials and Tools Needed for This Project:
1. Form(s) for the stepping stone
2. Cement, mortar, sand, water, usual concrete items.
4. Trowels, spreaders, etc.
6. Cans or measuring cups to measure the various ingredients.
7. Styrofoam or EPS foam (To make letters for the name, message).
9. Hotwire machine...Mighty Goliath! (See my instructable: making the mighty goliath).
10. Backer or bottom board for the mold. Letters will be glued to this board, and the board serves as the bottom of the mold.
Step 2: Build or Select Forms to Be Used.
I have made bricks with names also, so have shown some brick forms. For the stepping stones shown, I used a commercially available "walkmaker". These can be found at big box stores. The last time I checked, they were about $13.00. I want to use the largest of the stone shapes as my form. As shown, the form is oriented the way it would be if I wanted to pour a section of walkway. For this use,however, the form is inverted, so that the molded edge will be on the correct face of the stepping stone.
Step 3: Design the Name of Message to Use
First, I pick my font and point size on the computer....Then I print out the letters/message on a piece of cardstock or regular paper. The letters are then cut out with scissors. I have used previously cut letters to demonstrate, but it is the same for all projects.
Step 4: Glue or Pin Letters to a Foam Blank.
The choice depends on whether you want to resuse these letters. I have alphabets to use, so I pin them on the foam blank. If they are glued, they will be destroyed in the process. It's very easy to cut more, however.
Step 5: Cut Letters Out on the Hotwire
This takes a little practice, but not much. The difficulties might be in not setting the correct temperature on the cutting wire. Practice on a few extra letters, and it becomes very simple. Here is the message "welcome to my garden". It is orange simply because I use this foam for all kinds of signs, and I pre-paint some pieces if I know what colors I want. Obviously, the color doesn't matter as it will be removed with the styrofoam at the end.
Step 6: Place and Glue Letters on Bottom Board
Line out the letters accurately, as you want them to be as straight as possible simply for esthetic reasons. The letters must be flipped, right to left with the finish side of the letter facing or glued to the board. I use a mirror to check my work and insure that the letters are lined up correctly, and that they are not reversed. It's best to let the letters sit overnight if possible. I have had them float loose and disappear into the concrete! Hate when that happens.
Step 7: Mix Up a Batch of Concrete Mix With Colorant If Wanted
I use a standard mix of 3 parts sand to 1 part cement. If colorant is chosen, add to the water, and not the dry parts. How much colorant to use? I use about 2 tablespoons to 1 and a half cups of water, more or less. Not critical for sure. For the dry mixes, I use a regular 14oz. can, and for the stepping stone it takes about 7 cans of mix to complete the pour. Use a small amount of vegetable oil applied with an old brush to the mold sides as a release agent.
Step 8: Pour the Concrete Into the Mold.
Add about 1/3 of the thoroughly mixed water, cement, sand concoction. I tap the edges of the mold, and use a hammer to tap on the bottom (gently) so as to release any air bubbles.
Step 9: Let Set and Cure for 24-48 Hours
It's always best to go for the longer curing time. I do these on the floor of the garage, so they are not in direct sunlight as they dry/cure. From time to time I spray on some water so that the mix doesn't dry out too rapidly, and aids in the curing process.
Step 10: Remove From Mold and Clean Out Letters
To remove from mold, invert mold and stone, and gently shake stone loose. It should be about one and 1/4 to one and 1/2 inch thick and is very strong. However, letting it sit in the shade for a few days or more will allow it to cure to it's full strength. I usually let them sit for 3-4 days before removing the foam letters. To do this, I use "dental pick" tools for lack of a better description.
Step 11: Stepping Stones Are Ready for the Garden!
Voila! If everything comes together right, a nice stepping stone emerges! These can now be placed in the garden, incorporated in a sidewalk, or wherever they fit.