Instructables
Picture of Plastic Soda Bottle Prosthesis

Please cast your vote for the CIR's Pepsi Refresh submission to Provide Cost-Effective Prosthetic Care in Underserved Midwestern Areas - http://pep.si/eo57my

We would like to thank everyone for their kind comments, ratings, and votes. A video demonstration of this process has been produced and uploaded to YouTube. In addition, the Technical Note previously submitted to the Prosthetics and Orthotics International Journal has been accepted for publication in the near future. If you would like to know more please feel free to contact us.

In resource-limited areas worldwide, individuals with amputations may not be able to gain access to prosthetics devices due to a lack of the materials needed to fabricate them. This simple technique utilizes a 2-liter soda bottle to create below-the-elbow prosthesis suitable for a number of light-duty activities.

Please note well that this technique is intended for use by trained prosthetists and it is intended to be preformed only using a plaster cast of the residual limb.

The contents of this presentation/publication were developed under a grant from the Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research grant number H133E030017. However, those contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.

Materials:
- 2-liter plastic soda bottle
- heat gun
- formed plaster model of residual limb (amputation stump)
- hose clamp
- section of 1/2" PVC pipe
- band or manual saw
- utility knife
 
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Step 1:

Picture of
1. Remove the bottom of the bottle and place over the plaster model. Then apply heat to the lower portion to form the trimline.

Step 2:

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2. Heat the bottle until it conforms to the shape of the plaster model. This process takes about 15 minutes. Ensure that the bottle has fully conformed to the shape of the plaster model.

Step 3:

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3. Mark and cut the trimline.

Step 4:

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4. Make a cut through the threaded portion of the bottle.

Step 5:

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5. Insert a piece of 1/2" PVC pipe with a terminal device, and secure with a hose clamp.
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zomfibame2 years ago
awesome
i really like this instructable, i just stumbled across it, i wonder i i could use a mod of this to make a mold of my left leg , below the knee, mainly calf muscles, which is very muscular and make a snap on PET for my right leg below the knee, which is extremely atrophied due to spinal injury, the muscle are denerved, fibroids now.
if i could make a snap on PET form, it would not be weight bearing at all ,
purely cosmetic , Matching skin tone may be to far out of my reach' much, but if i made it to sock height it still would be huge improvement,
i may try the technique used in making an AFO , plaster positive that is split , and see if i can make a snap on PET.
it be interesting. IT is purely cosmetic, no weight bearing., probably cover it with a sock.
EggHead1014 years ago
Oh I forgot to mention. . . . Adding labels to the various "attachments". This way if a friend is over ... or someone. You could say "Hey can you bring me my "multi-tool" attachment?" Or my bottle opener ... you get the idea !
I saw somewhere a modified "Grabber" that attatched and was used by extending the elbo to grasp, and release when pulled back, but I can't find it anymore. It was a hand made device. It was also reversible.
EggHead1014 years ago
Fantastic.  I would make Two though. One as described and another that utilizes the threads on the bottle.
Easy enough to glue or screw a cap to something usefull = fast swap.

Also using the Pipe/hose clamp is wonderful - I would swap out the standard "screw" for a large Wing-nut so one can easily swap devices without needing a tool to loosen the nut / screw...

Wonderful Instructable
Ranie-K4 years ago
I have a cool, but less "idealistic" application for this great idea:

PLASTIC BOTTLE CAMERA ARMOR:

Make a positive copy of your camera: Cover it with a condom (or robber glove sleeve) and plastic wrap. Roll on a layer of soaked plaster bandage. Let harden and take apart. Coat with petroleum jelly or dish washing liquid. Re-assemble and fill with plaster. Let harden for several days, remove mold and polish positive.

Measure that the positive is as big as the camera. If not, tape a material like 1mm thick cardboard to the flattest sides -perhaps also over the display area, so the armor will be 1mm away from the screen.

Then do the same process as for the prosthetics, and cut holes where you need to access buttons and tripod threads.

Instead of pulling out the positive, you may need to destroy it to get it out; don't bang the plastic too much in the process, since that may discolor it.
Very Cool use.  Brilliant!

I've used this material in similar ways, for other projects and it is very durable and readily replaceable, if you screw up.  You cannot get better than that. 

Very useful for sealing, or coupling, the ends of tubes as well.


www.instructables.com/id/Pop_Bottle_Heat_Shrink_StrapsTubing/
Thur4 years ago
It's amazing what one could do with a little ingenuity. Just imagine all of the wasted bottles cluttering the landfills. Funny how we don't realize the potential of such common things.
beehard445 years ago
 maybe kipkay will be motivated and make a burning laser prosthesis.....
Iyer27115 years ago
You have no clue who all would thank you for this. Wow!
yokozuna5 years ago
Fantastic, a deserving winner, five stars. Any ideas for easy hand tools that could interchange into the PVC (maybe more versatile than the paintbrush)?
CIRnetwork (author)  yokozuna5 years ago
Thank you so much, we hope that it will prove to be very useful for people who have undergone transradial amputation. Any number of terminal devices can be fitted into a PVC pipe and used with the soda bottle socket. For example, when one needs to change the terminal device, one can just unscrew the hose clamp and replace the spoon-PVC unit with brush-PVC unit. The soda bottle socket combined with a number of terminal devices can be seen here.

Because the prosthesis is intended for light-duty activities, it is best suited to terminal devices for light-duty activities, such as the paintbrush, a sponge, spoon, or a passive cosmetic hand. Also, it is inexpensive enough to fabricate that instead of changing the terminal device several times, one could have many soda bottle prostheses with different terminal devices attached.
Nice video, you should imbed it in your instructable.
CIRnetwork (author) 5 years ago
A video documenting adding a second soda bottle for added strength and durability has been produced and uploaded to YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/user/CIRNetwork) and Facebook (http://www.facebook.com/home.php?#/group.php?gid=64982963640&ref=ts)

Thank you to everyone who suggested trying this modification, and thank you for your continued support and encouragement.
epfroth5 years ago
This is a truly brilliant idea, with enormous potential. It seems that the heat gun (and electricity to run it) could be the weak link in some resource-poor settings. Does boiling water provide enough heat to deform the plastic? What about a pot of sand heated over a fire?
CIRnetwork (author)  epfroth5 years ago
We previously tried this method using boiling water, but found it rather difficult to control. Hot sand also may prove to be more difficult to use, but we have not tried it yet. It seems that the following may be a possible solution: using a small stove and a metal funnel or metal can that is placed downside-up, the heat can be directed through a small opening, allowing one to heat the plastic bottle one area at a time, as would be done with the heat gun.
Tail pipe of a motor vehicle will work, so long as it is running.
CIRnetwork (author)  Madrigorne5 years ago
Yes, it may also be possible to use the heat from a tail pipe of a running car. Many years ago, there was a TV program which showed a man using a metal box welded on top of the tail pipe to warm-up or cook his lunch while driving. This may offer another alternative for heating the bottle, but we are not sure how easy and cost-efficient this method would be.
Hot oil might work as well, since it can be heated much hotter than water, up to 400 degrees.
CIRnetwork (author)  flatcurve5 years ago
We have not tried this method, but it seems that it might be a bit dangerous. In addition, it might not offer the same control over the area to be heated as a heat gun.
i am a certified orthotist and prostetist my specialty is the lower extremities. I own a company that fabricates these devices and fits on patients. to give back to the world i go to hati to help doctors without borders also i help my local community when possible. getting an infrared oven oven into a 3rd world country with no electricity can be tough to say the least. this is a neat way to fab a quick device for the upper extremities. I am very impressed and will utilize this idea the next time i go. thanks so very much for the idea.
CIRnetwork (author)  squarefodder5 years ago
Thank you so much for your comment. It is so nice to hear that this technique is reaching people both inside and out of the prosthetics field. We have developed other methods that may be of interest to you as well (please see http://www.youtube.com/user/CIRNetwork) and are in the process of developing Instructables about them as well.
thepelton5 years ago
Could heat shrinking soda bottle plastic over plaster be used to make a mask, after making a plaster cast of a face?
CIRnetwork (author)  thepelton5 years ago
As presented here, heat can be used to shrink the plastic bottle in order to enclose or encapsulate a plaster model. However, on a relief-type of model it may not conform properly. Vacuum forming using clear plastic will likely yield better results more easily than the soda bottle.
shwa5 years ago
Coming from third world country and war inflicted area,where many victims of war were amputees,most of whom couldn't afford decent prosthesis ,i think this is the one of the best instructables ever,hats off to you...
thepelton shwa5 years ago
I agree. There are a number of places such as Afghanistan and Khampuchea where people have picked up odd looking things only to find they were mines at the expense of a hand. This could do a lot to give such people a sense of self worth.
CIRnetwork (author)  thepelton5 years ago
Thank you very much for your comments. This technique was developed to offer a solution for people injured by landmines, but it could be utilized by other people who have undergone amputation as well. Much of the work we do focuses in Latin America, Eastern Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, and all too often we see civilians – often agricultural workers - who have been injured needlessly by landmines. Since comesis is an important factor in some cultures, we hope this simple socket technique can be combined with cosmetic hands. We are working to develop a simple way of fabricating a cosmetic hand, hopefully with some active function.
CIRnetwork (author)  shwa5 years ago
This technique was developed by the Center for International Rehabilitation (Chicago) for landmine survivors. The work is funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research of the U.S. Department of Education under grant number H133E030017. We are hoping to transfer this technology to prosthetics service providers in low-income countries. A paper entitled: “Technical Note: Plastic Soda Bottles: A reusable material for making transradial sockets” has been accepted by the Prosthetics and Orthotics International for publication in the near future.
smilestill5 years ago
Interesting Concept. I would not think it would be structurally sound enough for use. It may very well function as a check socket, though I would have to see it in person to verify that.
CIRnetwork (author)  smilestill5 years ago
When heated, the plastic becomes thicker and stronger, but also gives some flexibility providing a greater level of comfort. However, it is important to remember that it is intended for “light-duty” use - even though it can support a 4kg static load on the plaster model without a stress mark or bending. There will be a clinical evaluation to determine to what extent this device can be useful. We believe that it will be effective for “light-duty” activities, such as feeding, showering, writing etc.
In the photo, you had what appeared to be a paintbrush attached to the end. I suppose an amputee could paint with this. The only problem I could see would be cleaning the brush.
CIRnetwork (author)  thepelton5 years ago
Thank you for your comment. Likely one can simply dip the paintbrush into a bucket filled with water or hold it under running water to clean off the water-soluble paint. One could also loosen the hose clamp and remove the PVC pipe with the paintbrush for cleaning.. The socket can also be combined with a number of terminal devices, so one may have multiple prostheses with brush-terminal devices for different colors and all brushes could be cleaned at end of a job.

The low-cost feature of prosthesis fabrication technique allows one to have a number of sockets with various terminal devices as seen in the video of the fabrication method which has been uploaded to YouTube
Lagather5 years ago
Another possibility might be to replace the plastic bottle for the stump socket with corn starch based plastic.

http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Potato-Plastic!/

CIRnetwork (author)  Lagather5 years ago
This is an interesting idea. We have used the plastic soda bottles in this application because they are readily available. I am sure the way you demonstrated will be used by some people in many applications.
Actually, the Brendan who demonstrated the potato plastic is a different Brendan. From the comments on his post, people are trying to figure how to apply his plastic. I don't know how accessible glycerin is in developing countries, but it might lead to a stronger and more durable prosthesis. I think that the process might be able to use some of the same steps as your original process. The starch plastic has to cool and dry. The plaster of paris positive could help the drying process. Anyway...it might be a good follow up to your original publication/research.
Glycerin is derived from animal fat. It should be quite available, as long as there are no objections about it's coming from animals. I suggest you read about the origins of the Sepoy Mutiny, in regards to objections about glycerin's sources.
CIRnetwork (author)  thepelton5 years ago
Using glycerin for making plastic may be needed in some locations. We do find the plastic created to be very interesting and it seems it would have many possible applications. At this time, using the plastic soda bottle, which is quite abundant, might be easier in these areas than having to create a plastic product for use.
yotnomuk5 years ago
Congrats on the win
I was wondering how (un)comfortable it would be to have this plastic essentially wrapped around the skin for an extended period of time.
Would doing what this person does helps letting the skin "breathes" ?
http://www.instructables.com/id/SI7BKOOFPQL8O7H/

CIRnetwork (author)  yotnomuk5 years ago
Thank you very much! If problems with discomfort arise, one can simply remove the prosthesis when not doing activities that require it. Wearing a thin sock or stockinete may also be used to minimize the problem.
siderits5 years ago
Outstanding, can this plastic be melted and recast or extruded for attachment points?
CIRnetwork (author)  siderits5 years ago
PET plastic has been recycled and used to make fabric or carpet. The Prostheses Foundation in Chiang Mai (Thailand) has recycled plastic bottles and the tabs of aluminum cans to fabricate prosthetic components – both are very interesting and worthwhile ideas. The technique described here is likely to be most useful in areas with limited resources, i.e., those where materials needed for prosthetic fabrication may not be available. Even though plastic bottles may be fully “recycled” to create full prostheses or components, or “reused” as seen in the technique presented here, the overall environmental impact will likely be limited due to the large number of bottles produced and used worldwide. We are pleased to see that there are so many innovative ways of reusing plastic bottles being submitted to Instructables.
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