Playing with Voltage Regulators
Anyone that has played with these little workhorses of our world and wondered how they work, read on. The standard three terminal regulators like the 7805(5v) are what most people see and use without thinking too much about them. All voltage regulators work about the same. They find a reference voltage between Volts In and Ground and or Volts Out that they use to set the output Voltage. When a load is applied this reference keeps the output Voltage steady. You can play games with these old regulators by putting a resistor between the Ground Pin and Ground. This can make a standard 7805 give any voltage between 5 volts and your supply volts. This shows how much regulators are the same.

About supply voltage to a regulator. You need to have at least the regulated voltage plus 2/3 more for basic operation of a regulator. That is 5 plus about 4 equals about 9 volts the minimum to get a steady regulated output from a 7805. You also need the current of your supply to equal at least twice as much current as your circuit needs. Why? Too little current in equals poor regulation. The regulator will lose its reference voltage.

A good starting point is about twice the voltage and the current of you circuit. So for a 5 volt regulator a 12 volt 1.5 amp supply is fine. 12 volts is on the low side of good stable regulation, but having 1.5 amps makes it a good power supply for a great many things. Each Led uses about 5-10 milliamps. Each servo uses about 20 milliamps. Each motor 20 to 50 milliamps and so on. One Amp is 1000 milliamps.

A power Led is a great way to monitor your power. Use a standard size Led with a 460 to 1000(1k) ohm resistor connected across power and ground. It will dim and flicker a little each time something like a servo or motor starts up and that is normal. If the led stays dim then you may have something wrong. Not having enough power will do this. Regulators will just shut down or act funny if they do not have enough voltage for stable operation.

Regulators make great battery chargers. What is a battery charger? It is about 1.5 times your battery’s voltage with enough current to tell the battery you are charging it. Too little voltage or current and the battery will just think you a load. Like a car battery you only need about 16 volts, but you need about 10 or more amps to be a charger for it. Higher voltages with low current are trickle chargers. Remote controlled toys usually have battery pack of two or more cells. Each cell is 1.2 volts. Just add them up and multiply them by 1.5 to get your starting supply voltage. Use a supply that is two or three times the current of your battery pack and you have a charger for it.

Charging a battery requires monitoring the current going into the battery. When you first hook up your charger the current will be high. When the battery reaches a full charge the current will drop. Simply putting a resistor of about 100 ohms between the charger’s plus lead and the battery plus terminal you can use ohm’s law to get your charging current I= V/R. You can use an analogue port of a microprocessor control your battery charger. Many things are possible.

For my battery adapter for my Picaxe 28 project board I made the circuit diagram as simple as possible because the 350 regulator looks like any other regulator. Do not hook the heatsink pin 2 to ground. Use a heatsink if you need to. You may need to readjust the pots if you use a higher supply voltage. The 350 is a 3 amp regulator so you can use a higher current supply too. These kinds of adapters make robots and things easier to play with. I left the pots in so that I could use my adapter for other things. All of the parts are available from Jameco.com and other sites and most at Radio Shack.

Enjoy
Steve
karlpinturr says: Aug 26, 2012. 12:15 PM
So... IF I'm understanding several bits-and-bobs, then I can take 8 rechargeable AAA batteries (9.6 volts total), connect the positive to pin 1 of the 7805, connect the negative to pin 2 and/or the heatsink (as well as continuing it out to my connector) and I'll get 5 volts at pin 3, which I take to my connector?

If this is right, I need to know how to protect the 7805 from the 1100mAh the batteries produce, but also how to output the 2000mA the charger I will be 'replacing' produces.

Any help would be greatly appreciated, thank you.
Jimmimak says: Mar 20, 2012. 11:54 AM
Great instructable, thanks for the information. I want to know whether the resistor trick (placing resistor between ground pin and ground) will work with the modern PWM switching type regulators... any help is appreciated!

I have a device that needs 9 volt 400mA and 12 volt unregulated supplies, so I am going to try using a 12 volt 1A mains adapter and use a regulator with a resistor to get the 9-volts.
Phil B says: Feb 28, 2012. 4:39 PM
Thank you for this. I learned several things that may be useful in the future, depending on what I might need to do sometime in the future. So far, I have often used an LM317 regulator chip and done the calculations to use a fixed resistor in place of the variable resistance between terminals 1 and 2. The LM317s have worked very well for my projects.
pfred2 says: Feb 29, 2012. 3:32 PM
The best way I've found to "fix" an LM317 is with a 10 turn trimmer pot. Once you've adjusted it they don't usually go out of whack. If you're really hung up on a fixed resistance you can take the trimmer out of the circuit and measure it. Then replace it with a fixed resistor. Save the math for propeller heads. I doubt it works out so cleanly in the real world anyways.