Introduction: Portable Solar Generator

Picture of Portable Solar Generator

*** UPDATE to "Step 3: Solar panel & connections"

I built this system because its fun, I'm a nerd and its fun. Did I mention its fun? I've been in computer electronics for 20 years now and working with 12v comes pretty natural to me. What I don't know much about is solar power and how I can use it in a practical way.

My home office is the perfect space to test out this little generator. I’m planning to operate a 6 watt LED lamp, a 14" Dell laptop, 22” Dell LCD monitor, my home internet router, a Cisco VOIP phone and a set of Bose computer speakers. My total running wattage for these devices is: 75.

I bought my system based on guesswork and math principles BEFORE I knew my actual wattage. Don't make my mistake and buy the Kill A Watt meter FIRST so you don't have to guess on battery sizing.

Here’s what I bought:

  • 100 watt WindyNation polycrystalline solar panel kit /w
    • 20 amp charge controller
    • 40 feet of solar cable
    • 2 pair of MC4 connectors
    • 1 Aluminum stand and hardware for the panel
  • 35ah deep cycle AGM battery
    • AGM is sealed so it's safe for indoor use and zero maintenance which appealed to me. They are pricier than flooded when compared to the per amp hour rating though. LiOn batteries are lighter and smaller but the price point is still too high for me.
  • Bestek 400 watt 12v inverter
  • 12v marine grade plug
  • USB port and voltmeter kit Misc cabling
  • Some additional MC4 connectors
  • A couple pairs of crimpers
  • Terminal connectors
  • Wire (14awg and 8awg)
  • Dewalt 22” rugged toolbox

This whole system was $410 my cost

I bought parts from Amazon.com, Home Depot and Harbor Freight. Most of it was from Amazon.com though.

Step 1: Battery Sizing & Math

Picture of Battery Sizing & Math

UPDATE : This month I signed up for PVOL101 by https://www.solarenergy.org. I've always wanted to know more about this technology and now I'm on my way. That being said I wanted to update a little information from my original post.

In order to properly size a PV system you need to know what your loads are. In my original use case I said I wanted to run my home office (see above). The first step to properly identifying your electrical usage is with a tool like the "Kill A Watt" or something equivalent so measure your devices. I plugged all my home office gear into a power strip then connected the meter between the strip and the wall. My running wattage deviates between 68-77 watts. The first update to this section is here. Watts is a measure of energy but it has no time component to it. As you as you turn on your loads you are using a certain number of watts. To measure watt hours (or Wh as you'll see next) determine how many hours you run the load... simple right? Here's the math :

Voltage X Amperage = Wattage (<--- this will make sense in a minute so stay with me)

Its easiest to convert all your devices to watts (or use the Kill A Watt) and add up the totals. Wattage in my case was 75 (average) times the number of hours you run the devices. In my case I had a goal of eight hours or one work day on battery power.

Math :

75watts X 8 hours = 600 watts

Not knowing my actual numbers in advance I guessed wrong on my battery and undersized it, oops. I bought a 35ah deep cycle battery on a guess. So my battery's capacity is...

More math :

12v battery X 35ah total capacity = 420watts in one hour so divide 420 watts by 8 hours (my original goal) and you get 52.5 watts per hour. Knowing this I really guessed wrong since I needed 75 watts per hour. Does it start to make a little sense?

So there's another wrinkle you need to know about lead acid batteries like mine. You shouldn't discharge your lead acid deep cycle batteries more than 50% or you can damage the battery's ability to hold a charge. My 35ah battery can delivery 35 amps for one but in doing so use 100% of the battery's capacity. We just learned that's not healthy for the battery's cells. So in reality divide your battery's listed capacity by 50% (so you don't damage the battery) and your actual usable power is only 17.5ah.

More math :

17.5ah X 12v = 210watts total. 210watts / 75 watts per hour gives me only 2.8 hours usable

If you are still with me, what I should have bought was a 125ah battery. Why well lets look at the numbers :

More math :

125ah X 12v = 1500watts / 50% = 750watts / 8 hours = 93.75 watts per hour (more than I need!)

Now mine at 35ah was $65 but the one I'd need is $250 so there's a big difference. Had I bought the right battery my 100 watt panel would have needed 7.5 hours of perfect condition daylight to recharge it. Using this math I would need 1-2 more panels to keep up with my rate of discharge. So this means more math to determine how to scale up you array to fit the batteries and your load. I'm learning this stuff gets expensive VERY quickly!

Step 2: Building the Box

Picture of Building the Box

In my case the toolbox provided ample space for my needs. I originally thought about using an ammo can but want sure everything I bought would fit. The layout can be whatever you need it to be an your components are going to be different size than mine.

I centered the battery so the balance would be good since you carry it by a centered handle. Next I mounted the inverter and charge controller on the right side of the box. I just used some small bolts washers and nuts I had around the shop. The USB/12v/Voltmeter combo required three 15/16 holes to be drilled through the box as well. They are held on my plastic nuts from the inside.

Step 3: Solar Panel & Connections

Picture of Solar Panel & Connections

*** Update

So I've learned that you want to have 1.5x the solar panel output compared to the battery capacity. Here's and example from an earlier step. My panel is max 100 watts in perfect conditions. So in 5 hours of perfect daylight I could hope for 500 watts of power back to the batteries. Unfortunately there is loss at all points in the system so if you need 100 watts per hour you should have 150watts worth of panels. This rough estimate should compensate for the losses in other places of the system.

This panel comes with two pair of MC4 connectors and they require a special crimper to make extension cables for. My kit came with the wire but I bought extra connectors and a crimper. The crimper was $20 and in my opinion worth the cash spent for the time saved. Also the connections are rock solid. The idea behind MC4 if you don't know is to create a weather tight connection that will not disconnect on its own unless a special tool is used. I watched a few YouTube videos to learn how to make MC4 connectors.

Step 4: Grid Tie Inverter & More Panels (future)

Picture of Grid Tie Inverter & More Panels (future)

I know I said I undersized my battery so you might be asking why in the heck would you worry about adding grid tie when you use up all your battery as it is? Well, for me this is an experiment first and I know if I replace the battery I'll solve my issue but I want to see what grid tie would look like.

My home office is only used two days a week so If I'm only using solar partially that's OK and besides if I use solar in the morning, switch to grid then back to solar after that batteries charge that's still better than nothing.

This grid tie inverter works by taking a 12v input (normally directly from a solar panel) and converting it to 120v and feeding it back into the grid. What this means is that you are pushing power back in and spinning your meter backwards. I'm planning to call my utility company before I buy this and make sure I'm not breaking any rules.

***safety note***

This model and many others like it have something called "islanding" built in. Islanding basically means the inverter needs to sense the grid to operate. The minute the grid fails (power loss event or blackout) inverter shuts off. This is to protect the poor lineman who is working on the grid trying to restore power for you. He/she doesn't deserve to get zapped just because we want to save some money on our power bill right? Exactly!

Step 5: Other Important Stuff to Know But Don't Get Overwhelmed

I talked about using the Kill A Watt to help size your battery. Here are some other things to remember.

  1. Distance matters! 12v doesn't do well long distances
    1. Distance from the panels to the charge controller should be as short as possible. The shorter your run the less voltage & amperage will drop
    2. Distance from the battery to the controller should be as little as possible for the same reason I mentioned above.
  2. Using an inverter should be avoided when possible. The more you can run 12v natively the longer your battery will last.
    1. I know this isn't possible in all cases but you would be surprised on how many appliances run on 12v. Just lookup RV stuff
  3. Cable size matters!
    1. The cable I got in my kit from the panels was 10awg
    2. The inverter I use has 8awg cable
  4. Charge controller type matters PWM vs. MPPT
    1. There are tons of articles out there on the differences and you'll get confused as I did but for me the PWM was fine.
  5. Inefficiencies are rampant in these systems
    1. You lose power between each step in the process.
    2. The more you spend on brand name gear the less loss you'll probably see
    3. You get what you pay for (most of the time)
  6. Batteries
    1. Flooded lead acid
      1. Cheap, reliable, time tested but off gasses explosive hydrogen
    2. AGM (absorbed glass mat)
      1. Cost more than flooded, can be mounted at any angle, reliable,
    3. LioN Lithium Iron Phosphate
      1. VERY expensive, weigh nothing compared to led acid, can be discharged to 80% instead of 50%, last MUCH longer than AGM or flooded.

Comments

ShanL (author)2016-03-19

How do I get lipo to work on solar charger without blowing up the battery bank?

DaytonaPete (author)ShanL2016-03-20

ShanL if i understand your question, all you need is a charge controller that supports your battery type. most new ones offer selections for each battery type. Mine was $30 and supports several types.

ShanL (author)ShanL2016-03-19

What I mean is beyond the point of a voltage regulator, but connect a smart charger that would charge the bank whenever solar power is available.

KVSBUNNY (author)2016-03-02

I'm just starting to learn about solar power, your instructable was very easy for a newbie to follow and the comments included a whole lot of good tips too! Thanks

grumpyrich made it! (author)2016-02-04

This one's mine - I used a Dewalt TSTAK tool box, and decided to include an analogue ammeter, voltmeter, a set of powercon outlets (all my 12V PA kit uses powercon connectors) and a charge controller.

The battery is a bog-standard 12V lead-acid leisure battery, and there's a 50A anderson connector for connecting in extra batteries. Add to that a 20A charge controller for connecting up a 100w solar panel and it's a pretty self contained setup' plus there's enough space down the side for the power cables.

I didn't bother with an inverter since all my gear runs at 12V that I'm likely to need, and all the connectors are internal if I ever decide to change things around or decide to use the toolbox for tool storage

But cheers for the idea

DaytonaPete (author)grumpyrich2016-02-04

Rich that's a great setup and its efficient by not needing to invert the power. How long can you run your gear from it? How many hours to recharge it from that 100 watt panel?

grumpyrich (author)DaytonaPete2016-02-05

Though I should have said that normally that battery, plus some other batteries are trickle-charged from a 20 watt solar panel on the roof. Keeps them nicely topped up, and I can plug in a mains charger if needed

grumpyrich (author)DaytonaPete2016-02-05

I haven't tested it yet to be honest - plan is to hook up the PA it runs (see the picture) in a few weeks time and run it up to full power and see how much current it draws (hence the ammeter for handy in-the-field checks). The battery is just an 85 amp hour one so can do a wee bit of maths to work it out - though last year I ran a slightly smaller rig and it barely tickled the sides of the battery to be honest. Though I have got a spare 85ah battery in its own enclosure just in case
And I reckon on a sunny day the panel will put in about 9-10 amps per hour, so if the PA is running and it's not running too loud it'll just about balance out (back of a beer-mat maths admittedly). If I'm just recharging then maybe 6-8 hours from discharged (roughly)

tiger12506 (author)2016-01-25

Cable size matters because of the distance. A larger diameter wire will carry more current without heating. Heating increases the resistance of the cable run, which in turn decreases the power you can use for your load.

DaytonaPete (author)tiger125062016-01-30

Thanks I updated my step five based on your feedback.

james.king.94064 (author)2016-01-25

Overall, I think you've done a great job! I think where you can save power is in the devices you are powering. Using Dells' power saving features in the laptop you might be able to save some precious watts. Look into Haswell or ARK Processors most are only running at 15W on the processor.

HP Pavilion 300-030 Mini Desktop PC with Intel Core i3-4025u Processor,4GB DDR3 Memory,1TB SATA Hard Drive,Windows 8.1 ( go to power settings and adjust it for efficiency, remove any extraneous programs from win 8.1 etc. )

Also you can get rid of the old style CCFL Displays and upgrade to LED with a simple conversion kit from LCDPARTS.com they sell inverters and LCD Drivers. This should save you some more Watts in the long run since CCFL has to increase 12V to 1000V for backlighting. LED Does this but steps down so it is much more efficient. OLED displays are much better than LED too. Also you could get rid of the OLD PC Speakers and use a Bluetooth speaker since they won't need to be plugged in you can subtract that from your power requirement. Let me know if this helps any.

Another thing you may be able to do is increase the efficiency of your panel. You can do this by building a sun tracker and a focuser. It looks like a curved bowl that fits around the Solar Panel.

James I'm stuck with the laptop and monitor right now but I'll take your advise when I go to upgrade next time.

As for the sun focuser I can't find any. Mind sending me a link. I've looked at tracker systems but man are they pricy. I could add more panels cheaper right now vs a tracker.

Ibrahimomarkhan (author)2016-01-28

awesome project

Thanks I appreciate it.

gasdascgsda (author)2016-01-29

You will make it easy with INPLIX instructions . just google it

DIY Hacks and How Tos (author)2016-01-18

Awesome. Solar power anywhere.

feature this on the make page

I can't feature anything on Make.

J2SARET (author)2016-01-26

this is exactly the information I need at a level I can understand. I need to power an entryway and this will do very nicely.

DaytonaPete (author)J2SARET2016-01-27

I'm glad it helped you. Post your project when it's done. I'm curious about it

GaryO19 (author)2016-01-24

great job. just remember you need to keep the inverters outside the containers that they are placed on. this allows good air flow through the inverters to keep them from overheating. might ought to figure out some kind of way to segregate the other components also from any possible fumes that may come off when the charging of battery/batteries if multiple batteries are used. those gases no matter how few there may be could shorten the life of those components like the charge controller, the battery gauge, etc. very awesome idea. as mentioned earlier also by someone else, you could put a 1X4 bases under it with small casters/rollers to make it easier to move around instead of carrying it and taking a chance in dropping it, especially those that have physical disabilities. love your enthusiasm on the great project. great message to put out there with this project.

DaytonaPete (author)GaryO192016-01-24

I'll have to add a vent on one side and a fan on the other to draw out the fumes. Thanks for the advice

DavidS531 (author)DaytonaPete2016-01-27

True, in mine I would (did) add a (possibly arduino) thermostat so the fans will only come on as needed.

ajwolf (author)GaryO192016-01-24

a couple small fans cut into the sides of the box one pushing one pulling should work :o)

LuckyGuyOne (author)2016-01-24

DaytonaPete,

As many already told, you should first calculate the necessary power during the working period and then to see the needed accumulator capacity. BUT, as you stated, this is much an experiment and you have plenty of room for improvements. The first one I would recommend is to add another accumulator. Please note you have to add the same brand and model of the accumulator as you already have. The second advice I would give you is to make some sort of baggage trolley and to mount the solar power station on it in order to make it mobile and not break your back. Third, maybe you can reprogram your charge controller to disconnect the load at a lower voltage (all of the solar charge controllers I use have this feature).

Good work anyway!

DaytonaPete (author)LuckyGuyOne2016-01-24

Adding another battery is good idea. I'll currently not using the load side of the controller at all. I could though and that way save from draining the battery to low.

LuckyGuyOne (author)DaytonaPete2016-01-24

If you want to be covered all the working day, you have to increase the storage capacity. But if you use the solar generator only for a short time, you can leave it this way.

And yes, the use of the load connection of the charge controller will help the accumulator to remain healthy :-).

And maybe the charge controller had an acoustic warning to let you know when it's time to cut the power in order to prevent the LVD (Low Voltage Disconnect) function to activate.

DaytonaPete (author)LuckyGuyOne2016-01-26

So I would use the load side for all 12v power except the inverter because it needs 8awg cable?

I've been keeping an eye on voltage levels throughout the day. If they drop to 12.3 (50%) I stop using the system and go back to grid. Is there a better way?

LuckyGuyOne (author)DaytonaPete2016-01-26

DaytonaPete,

Indeed, you have to use the load side for all your 12V consumers. There is no need to connect the inverter to the charge controller because the inverter itself should have a LVD feature. This feature have to stop the inverter working if the accumulator tension drops below 10.5V (this is the most common value for inverters LVD), you have to check this in your inverter manual. In fact, it is much better to connect the inverter directly to the accumulator in order to minimize all the loses. And use only the original inverter's cables, don't make them longer

If your charge controller have the LVD feature, then it will disconnect the load if the accumulator drops below 11.4V or 11.0V (this tension depend on the charge controller manufacturer and model, but pretty much this is the the value for most of them (you have to check this also, in your charge controller manual).


Please let us know if your charge controller and the inverter have the LVD function. Also, please specify the charge controller model, if possible.

tiger12506 (author)2016-01-25

"The longer your run the less voltage & amperage will drop"

I believe this came out incorrectly, on step 5. What you meant to say was "The shorter your run the less voltage & amperage will drop"

DaytonaPete (author)tiger125062016-01-26

I updated step 5 - Thanks!

JesseK3 (author)2016-01-24

I live completely off the grid on solar and wind...and I can tell you that you are paying 3-4 times the price you should be paying for batteries, inverter, etc.

General Lee 450 (author)JesseK32016-01-24

JesseK3, If You don't mind, Where do You buy Yours at ?

JesseK3 (author)General Lee 4502016-01-25

Solar...I like Sunelec.com
Wind... Missouri Wind & Solar
Battery... The GC-2 at Sams are as close to Trojan T-105 as you'll get at half the price.

For AGM batteries, Battery Sharks are pretty good for the 35AH & below batts, but I usually find a specific battery rating, then do a search on Amazon.

The $159 600 watt inverter is OUTRAGEOUS! You cn go to any truck stop an get a 1500 watt for $99. Even cheaper on Amazon. And those are cheap Modified Sine Wave inverters! I got a 750 watt True Sine Wave inverter for less than $159, and it gives me clean AC power.

Just saying...I understand this is his first build, but you can get 3 times as much, better quality, for the same $$ if you just shop around first. The key to ANY alt power project, is KNOW YOUR MAX USAGE first! Then find anyplace you conserve, especially lighting. Conservation is always cheaper in the long run. Then, buy for that....

DaytonaPete (author)JesseK32016-01-26

Thanks for the information. Its nice to know how to save some money and accomplish the project.

cangrejero (author)2016-01-24

I have an electric trolling motor connected to a 12V
Deep Cycle battery with a 100 Amp/Hour
Rating. The motor's manufacturer recommends a 50 Amp/Hour
Rating. If it isn't too much trouble, could you advise how I could modify this set-up so I can re-charge the battery when under way. Any guidance is appreciated. Thanks!

rpait (author)cangrejero2016-01-24

cangrejero...hola Sr. crabber

I'm not sure what you're asking, about re-charge while underway. If you mean using the 12VDC battery to run your trolling motor, and use a solar panel to charge while you go, there should be no problem. The solar panel will simply supply current to the motor and/or battery. If the solar panel provides less current that the motor takes, the battery charge will continue to decline, but at a slower rate. If the solar panel supplies more current than the motor needs, the battery will accumulate more charge. If this latter case describes your setup, you may (but probably not) need a charge controller for the battery.

Let me know if I got it right, or give mo more detail. I've had a lot of experience in solar and electronics and will be happy to help.

Hasta luego,

Ron

cangrejero (author)rpait2016-01-24

Thanks for the advice, Ron. You got it right. I'm going to use a solar panel that, hopefully, will generate more juice than the motor needs.

rpait (author)cangrejero2016-01-24

So...¿where do you go crabbing?

rpait (author)cangrejero2016-01-24

You should be able to find what the motor draws in amps. Then choose a "suitable" PV panel that has similar current output. If the PV current and motor current are close, you shd be able to get by without a charge controller. I"m guessing it would be a 100W panel; that may be too large for your trolling boat.

DaytonaPete (author)cangrejero2016-01-24

As I understand it the mfg has a minimum. Your is fine and actually better because you can run longer before you run out. Both batteries are 12v right?

cangrejero (author)DaytonaPete2016-01-24

Thanks, Daytona Pete!

I use only one 12v battery. I'm plan to add some form of solar device but, who knows!

DavidS531 (author)2016-01-24

A cigarette lighter plug to your car and this should charge your car battery in a few hours if you go out early and leave your lights on, door/trunk/glove box open and/or some other wacky thing as I seem to do on occasion, or only once in 50 years is what I meant, yea, only once. Don't tell my wife though or I can't get after her when she locks her keys in the car.

DavidS531 (author)2016-01-20

Sorry, I did think of it first. I know every one says that, I sold it to a friend in 2010 (something of a conspiracy nut, but a nice guy), because I just didn't use it much any more. In 1995 we didn't use USB so much, I used an old Craftsman metal tool box, the panel was a 36v fold-up 36"x24" set of panels and the electronics weren't all-in-one like this one (well I did make it from scratch back then). I could adjust the amps and/or volts as needed, it was great in the field or in the back yard listening to a radio, small TV or just keeping my cell phone charged. Now I used as seen in the attached. That is not to say this is not a very nice DIY project, it is, keep it up, this is not the first item I have lost to not patenting but then again I am not really into that sort of thing. Good job.

DaytonaPete (author)DavidS5312016-01-20

David, That's fancy for sure. Was the case custom?

DavidS531 (author)DaytonaPete2016-01-24

I did not mean to imply that I made this one. Maybe I should have been more clear when I said, "Now I use as seen in the attached." Sorry if there was any mix-up.

DavidS531 (author)DaytonaPete2016-01-24

I bought this a few months ago on amazon for $16. It has come in handy quite a few times since.

Topvision Star 30000mAh Dual USB Solar Panel Power Bank External Battery Charger for Apple iPhone/iPad/iPod, MP3/MP4, PDA, PSP, Digital Camera and Other Smart Phone -Black

Built-in 30000mAh high capacity rechargeable Li-Ion battery,Powerful with long operation time.

  • Portable and conversion,High efficiency of power conversion,Electricity-saving function.
  • Environmental friendliness & Economic Efficiency,long cycle life and rapid charge.
  • Double USB Output (can work for 2 phones charging at the same time),With LED power indicator.
rpait (author)2016-01-24

DaytonaPete,

Nice project. You could even run some modest-sized power tools, especially if you increase the size of your inverter. Good choice, in selecting AGM battery.

Pls allow me a tiny correction to some terminology:

* you refer to "running wattage...68-77 watts per hour". That should simply be 68-77 watts

* "75watts per hour X 8 hours = 600 watts total needed"; this should be:

75watts X 8 hours = 600 watt-hours total needed

* "12v X 35ah = 420"; shd be:

12v X 35ah = 420 watt-hours

The correct units are helpful, especially when selecting battery size, which is volts and AH.

DaytonaPete (author)rpait2016-01-24

Thanks the the corrections. I'll be sure to update my descriptions. Much appreciated

blackvyper (author)2016-01-24

Nice job! Maybe it's time I made an upgrade to my own system.

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