Introduction: Power Over Ethernet (PoE) Adapter

Power over Ethernet or PoE, is the technology used for power transmission in network equipment, via network UTP cable, together with data. PoE is useful in situations when we want to connect network devices that are far away from a power source. In this situation we take advantage of the Ethernet cable, because there are 4 pairs of wires, but for the majority of networks, only 2 pairs are used for data transmission. PoE uses 2 unused twisted pairs, for electrical transmission needed to power the device.

There are several architectures of PoE and many of them existed before the technology being standardized, due this fact not all types of PoE are compatible. PoE devices receive power directly from the network cable, but should be noted that according the manufacturers, specs like nominal values of voltage and current, and even pairs used to transport electrical energy may be different.

Source here.

Step 1: Description

Applying a voltage across terminals not dimensioned for that, may damage the network device. To avoid this, the best way is to make a PoE adapter, separating the two input signals, via two simple circuits, an injector and a splitter. The injector will feed the network cable with power and this circuit is placed near the origin of the installation, where we have a modem or a switch, and of course a power plug. Then we have as outputs of the Ethernet cable, data and power that will connect to the device. Now we connect the splitter circuit, which receives data and power. From this circuit leaves an Ethernet cable and a DC plug avoiding applying unknown voltages to the devices.

As example consider the eLab case, which have a switch on the back of the room and we want to feed a 12V wireless router which is at the opposite end of the room, to obtain greater coverage by departmental area, in a place near a windows without power sources nearby. The network diagram is the one above.

Step 2: Material

• 2 RJ45 Female connectors
• 2 Plastic boxes
• 2 Ethernet cables (or UTP cable + 4 RJ45 crimping connectors)
• 1 DC male connector
• 1 DC female connector
• Perfboard or PCB

In this project we used only recycled components, from old devices, so we had a total cost of € 0.

Step 3: Connectors

In our case, we used old phone connector boxes as shown in the following image.

We replaced the RJ11 connectors by RJ45. Starting from two plastic boxes, it is necessary to open a hole to fit the RJ45 connectors and secure them with hot glue. In one of the boxes it’s also necessary to make an opening to DC female connector, for power input, this box will be the injector.

Step 4: Ethernet Data

Now to understand the connection, we must understand how data flows through an Ethernet cable.

For 10 and 100Mbps network we have the previous table of the configuration in the twisted pairs.

As seen in the table, pins 4, 5, 7 and 8 are not used, so let’s use them as positive and negative terminals for power. We use pins 4 and 5 (blue and blue/white) as positive and pins 7 and 8 (brown/white and brown) as negative.

Regarding the standard of colors, it doesn’t matter what standard is used, however all project should be done with the same standard. In our case we used the standard 568B.



Step 5: Schematic

We cut the Ethernet cable to obtain two ends with 15 cm long. This also can be made with UTP cable crimping the RJ45 connectors.

One of the tips will be the injector connection to the Switch and the other will connect the splitter circuit to the Wireless Router.

In these two tips, pairs blue and blue/white and brown and brown/white are cut and left open. In no situation they should be connected DC power at the risk of damaging the Switch or Wireless Router, so make sure they are left opened!

The connection should be made according with the schematic.

The 2 remaining pairs are normally plugged to the female RJ45 connector in the correct pins. The power supply comes from the female DC plug and will connect in the place of the pairs that were left opened. The positive will connect in pins 4 and 5, and the negative in the pins 7 and 8 of the female RJ45 connector. In the splitter circuit, the same will happen, being the male DC plug the only difference.

Step 6: How It Looks

In the first image you can see the tip of the cable that will come from the switch and the DC input connecting to the RJ45 plug. If you look closely you can notice that the RJ45 connector is a little melted, this is because the material is reused from old electronic devices, the same goes for the perfurated PCB. There are however connectors with mechanical contacts that don’t require any soldering.

In the second image you can see the RJ45 connector that will receive the PoE signal, where then the data will be separated from the power supply. The data will be sent through that tip of Ethernet cable, which will connect to the Wireless Router. The power supply is sent through another cable and will connect the DC plug to power the Router, however it’s not visible in this image for it is behind the Ethernet cable.

Before trying it, we tested the conductivity of each pin, for that we connected the injector and the splitter with an Ethernet cable and then checked if pins 1, 2, 3 and 6 had continuity, from the injector to the splitter, and the same with the DC connectors. We also tested if pins 4, 5, 7 and 8 didn’t have continuity, once they are cut in the adapters and left opened in each side. Finally we also tested adjacent pins to make sure there were no short circuits anywhere.

Step 7: Results

The injector on the right and the splitter on the left, as you can confirm by the DC output.

For well executed adapters, there is no influence of the power supply on the data cables, there is no interference in the transmission of data packets or in the speed itself.

In the following images you can see the adapters in the place where they were destined to be installed. The eLab network has been working well and there hasn’t been any kind of problem.

Step 8: Observations

Once again we remind that in the injector and splitter, the tips of the twisted pairs 4, 5, 7 and 8 (blue, blue/white, brown/white and brown) must be cut and left in open circuit. If this is not done or if there is any kind of anomaly that imposes voltage in these pins, the network devices might be damaged. It’s necessary to guarantee that these pins are left opened, preferably even isolated.

As mentioned before, the PoE technology uses the 2 twisted pairs that are not used on the ethernet cable, however, this is only true for 10 and 100Mbps networks. 1Gbps networks already use all the twisted pairs for data transmission, so the PoE technology is applied differently, through a technique called Phantom Power, therefore this adapter is not suited for those networks.

To avoid the risk of damaging network devices, it is never advised to inject the PoE signal directly anywhere but the splitter, unless you are absolutely sure about the device’s characteristics and about what you are doing. The injector and splitter should be always used together.

According with the application, voltage drops should be considered. For most uses, specially for low wattages, voltage drops in a PoE cable are ignored, however, for longer distances they start having considerable values which can change the performance of the network devices. If the voltage drop is relevant, then you should consider increasing the voltage supply in order to compensate the drops through the cable and have the device’s nominal voltage in its terminals. In our case, the router is less than 5 meters way from the switch, so the voltage drop is irrelevant. For longer distances they should be calculated and considered. Maximum voltage used in PoE systems is 57VDC.

If you are not sure about the network, about the devices, about how they work or about what you are doing, then it’s advised not to do any changes, under the risk of damaging the network devices, and we are not responsible for any kind of damage. Whatever you do, do it at your own risk.

Comments

author
_leo made it! (author)2016-12-21

Hi,
inspired by this project and others similar to it, I've build a version of this passive PoE injector using a PC power supply.

I've added some 1A fuse on each of the six injector
ports supplying 12V, a green power indicator led and on/off switch.

I'm using it to power some APs and relying on its
internal DC converter, should work adequately.

This is not a toy, so I must be careful.

Thank you.

IMG_20161110_093845829[1].jpgIMG_20161110_094317280[1].jpg
author
eLab (author)_leo2016-12-22

Thanks. That's very cool! It's a really nice idea!

author
RS844 (author)2016-08-04

I made this for my Fiber Opt Media Converter, it worked well for 2 days, then my media converter keeps showing error and was unable to connect to internet, later i removed POE and connected adapter directly it started working again !! I think it was caused by emf*.. any solution for this ?

author
eLab (author)RS8442016-08-11

Not sure. Maybe the device is more sensible. Try using better quality cable (higher CAT) and shielded Ethernet connectors plugged to ground.

author
jeff.cartwright.562 made it! (author)2016-05-08

Great Instructable! I made it with a few minor modifications. I changed from barrel connector to a USB to micro USB power cord. I need to power Raspberry Pi over ethernet. I also switched from a ethernet walk mount jack to an ethernet coupler. The coupler has a smaller form factor and I can put the injector and splitter in-line. My modifications are here: https://www.instructables.com/id/Power-Over-Ethernet-PoE-Injector-and-Splitter-or-H/.

finished.jpg
author
eLab (author)jeff.cartwright.5622016-08-11

Thanks, that's awesome!

author
vivek235 (author)2016-01-07

hello sir

i have question that is that i can connect two devices in 1 ppoe

author
bhayanichirag777 (author)2015-06-15

hi
can I use only one wire for positive from 4 and 5?
same as one wire from 7 and 8? because in my lane cable two wire is not shown continuity means damage so I have only 6 wire.can I use POE protocol with 6 wire ?

author
eLab (author)bhayanichirag7772015-06-15

Hello. Well you can use only 6 wires, although the current for powering the device will be more limited. Usually we use 2 wires for positive and 2 wires for negative so it allows for less resistance in the wire, therefore less voltage drops. If you only use 6 wires, the resistance of the cable will be higher which translates to more voltage drops. What this means is that your maximum length of the cable must be much shorter.

author
bhayanichirag777 (author)eLab2015-06-15

Thanks

I used 6 core from wire and my cable length is 10m and my internet is working.let's hope I will not face problem in future.

thanks guys this site is very useful....

author
eLab (author)bhayanichirag7772015-06-16

I'm glad it worked out! ;)

author
MikB (author)2013-04-27

If you are worried about voltage losses in longer cable runs (and you should be!) then certainly feeding a higher voltage and converting down remotely is a good idea.

Simple: 7805 or 7812 regulator to drop from a higher voltage. Gets warm, wastes power, current in (at say 15v) is same as current out to device.

Slightly Harder: Something like this http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/140906034058 fitted at the remote end will take whatever's available from about 7v upward (this module goes to 24v) and transform it down to 5v.

It's a switching converter (buck converter) meaning it draws less current than the load. This is good. It reduces the losses in the wiring, and is even more efficient.

It's not exactly PoE standards compliant, it's not 48v, but it works.

I'm using some of those modules (and similar) to power remote IP cameras (draw 400-500ma, at 5v) from a centralised "injector" -- actually a hacked 8 port router with an extra PSU to give 15v on pins 4,5 and 7,8 on 7 of the ports (not the UPLINK port), just as shown here, but internal to the router

Each port can source 500ma (limited by it's own polyfuse), the load from a single camera is now down to around 280ma.

The voltage does drop too much to just feed 5v and hope for the best, especially on long runs.

author
eLab (author)MikB2015-05-31

Thanks! That is certainly a good idea.

author
AndyGadget (author)2013-04-21

 
Nice write-up with plenty of information and the appropriate warnings. I'll be using something similar to run a remote IP webcam. Be aware that in some countries 568A is the norm so check the connections carefully. (I love standards - There's always so many to choose from #;¬)

author
adillbeck (author)AndyGadget2013-04-25

Curious, does the standard you choose really matter?
So long as you use the same pin out on both adapters it seems like the wire in the middle wouldn't matter all that much.
I took a short Leviton certification course 12 years ago, and if I remember correctly when making your cables you can choose either A or B, so long as you use the same one on both ends of the cable. (if you don't, you end up with a cross cable)

If this is incorrect then let me know, as I'd love to try this to free up an extension cord. :)

author
darman12 (author)adillbeck2013-04-25

You are correct, you can go either way, but following the standard in your environment will make troubleshooting much easier. According to Comptia, two B ends would be used for a straight through cable. While two A ends would work as well, two B ends is the standard. If I were to find an A on one end, I would assume the cable is crossover; that is why following the standard is important.

author
eLab (author)darman122015-05-31

That is correct.

author
darman12 (author)darman122013-04-25

Plus, it is a good idea to stay in good practice whether it is in a department with other IT staff or it is in your own office/home.

author
eLab (author)adillbeck2015-05-31

Yes you're right, as long as you use the same standard in both ends, everything will work the same way.

author
rusty0101 (author)adillbeck2013-04-25

One reason to be concerned with this is if you are working in a facility that requires a second party inspection of all work prior to being used. Granted in that case, this POE solution would not be expected to be used, but it's good to keep it in mind. It also needs to be kept in mind if you are going to be running this solution through a patch panel for facilities. Make sure that any ports that will be carrying voltage that is unusual for your facility is clearly marked.

author
eLab (author)adillbeck2013-04-25

As long as you use the same norm in both adapters, it's all fine ;)

author
AndyGadget (author)adillbeck2013-04-25

You're absolutely right - As long as you're connecting the same both ends the standard won't matter. My comment was more of a 'heads up' in case anyone was using a mix of off-the-shelf components which could be marked differently.
(If you use anything other than one of the recognised standards, ensure the signal pairs are consistent otherwise the transmission characteristics would be affected.)

author
eLab (author)AndyGadget2015-05-31

Thank you!

author
eLab (author)AndyGadget2013-04-21

Thank you! We wanted to keep it simple but with all the necessary info.

author
miguipda (author)2013-04-26

Hi,

here is a cheaper way : http://www.seeedstudio.com/depot/passive-poe-cable-set-p-1175.html?cPath=207

Bye

author
pcooper2 (author)miguipda2013-06-13

It's only cheaper if the power plug and jack are compatible with one's equipment. This Instructable shows you in a general way how to built injectors and splitters for virtually any situation.

author
eLab (author)pcooper22015-05-31

Yes, you're right :)

author
eLab (author)miguipda2015-05-31

There are lots of cheap devices everywhere. But the main goal of this post was to show everyone how simple it is to build a generic adapter, it's just contributing for the community knowledge and boosting the DIY culture.

author
Gadget93 (author)2013-04-27

This is a really cool and useful idea. As a CCNA and a CCDA I must mention though that due to the power and data running next to one another, there will be interference and noisy data. Alot of packets will be dropped and other problems will cause problems with data. Although if you don't have any other choice, go ahead...it is better than nothing.

author
stajp (author)Gadget932013-11-26

That's not the case if UTP is used. Even in CCNA learning literature there is an explanation why the UTP is twisted: to combat crosstalk. DC power, which doesn't change in regards to voltage or current, has minimal crosstalk to other twisted wires. The whole IEEE PoE standard takes a lot of consideration for optimizing this idea (and Cisco has PoE devices done according to standard), but there are similar projects to this which are used for years without any noticeable loss in data.

The only problem here is the quality of work when it's made and used. If it's done badly, then don't expect miracles, and crosstalk and other problems would arise :D

author
eLab (author)stajp2015-05-31

You're quite right! There are commercial devices already with built-in PoE. But the way it's done should be the main cause of success or failure.

author
eLab (author)Gadget932015-05-31

In any kind of situation there will eventually be lost packages, but the networking protocols are also designed to handle those situations. But for as far as we have tested this montage, everything has worked perfectly.

author
whitewolf499 (author)2013-04-25

Good Afternoon From UK, Linda. I have a query, although I am no technical wizard, but is there no danger of this device generating Radio frequency interference, given that the cables over which the power travels may act as an antenna. This has happened many times here in UK, Europe and North and South America. I am not saying this WILL happen, only quoting the experience of what is called Power Line Transmission devices, which uses power cables to pass data between distant points in the same building. You are to be praised for your efforts posting, and this is a genuine concerned enquiry. Thanks for youre time, Best Regards, Gary

author
MW0GKX (author)whitewolf4992013-04-25

It is sending low voltage, low amperage voltage over a data line. It is NOT the same as data over power line, PLT, as the cable is made for data.

I use a similar set up in my shack with no RF problems at all.

author
eLab (author)MW0GKX2015-05-31

You're right.

We also have been using this for over 4 years now, and it has worked without any problems.

author
skinny*k (author)whitewolf4992013-04-25

whitewolf, I believe that the problems with Power Line Transmission devices that you are referring to have to do with sending (analog or digital) signals over building mains wiring—AC powerlines—as with X10 and other devices or protocols.

author
eLab (author)skinny*k2015-05-31

Yeah, after reading your comment I realized the same thing. PLC devices are not the same as PoE devices, so there might have been a confusion in whitewolf comment.

author
eLab (author)whitewolf4992013-04-25

Thank you! Well, that is a common concern about PoE adapters but Ethernet communication is "kind of immune" to this type of electromagnetic radiation, besides the power lines being used in these cases are very low power. Therefore using some wires for power and some wires for data in the same cable, should not affect the transmission of data packets or the speed itself.

author
GregS2 (author)eLab2014-08-01

The power on the ethernet wires is not your power company's grid power, but the power coming from a power adapter. The power adapters are usually a DC output and as such have filter capacitors to stabilize the power they provide. Due to this, the power adapter would have the side-effect of low-pass filtering out any back-fed RFI and preventing it from entering the power grid.

author
eLab (author)GregS22015-05-31

Sure, the power adapters are usually well design to prevent those situations.

author
maestro_au (author)eLab2013-04-25

I'd add two more reasons - twisted pairs used in ethernet cable (and phone lines) are paired & twisted in an effort to minimise radiation/induction with an AC / RF signal on the wire.

PoE is DC and tends towards embedded devices with a steady current draw, therefore limited scope for radiation even from a straight wire conductor.

author
darman12 (author)maestro_au2013-04-25

That is a good point. Also note that the use of STP (shielded twisted pair) network cables rather than UTP (unshielded twisted pair) network cables will reduce the likelihood of interference.

author
eLab (author)darman122015-05-31

Yes, higher category cables should always help to reduce interference.

author
eLab (author)maestro_au2015-05-31

You're absolutely right!

author
eLab (author)whitewolf4992015-05-30

I just realized you might be talking about PLC devices, or Power Line Communication, which uses the mains AC line as a mean to transfer data packages. That has nothing to do with PoE, and it does have its problems. PLC devices may cause many interference, noise among other problems. But it is completely different than what this instructable is about.

author
alleoOtechnoO (author)2015-02-23

Help me..

Tp-WA5210G received high ping, Some times the router page doesn't even load all the way or properly.

I'm use (PoE) Adapter for setup my Tplink WA5210G and different Lan Cable (Poe slot = Cat6 20meter) (Lan slot=Cat5e 1meter) is any speed effect on this case?

author
eLab (author)alleoOtechnoO2015-05-30

Hard to know :/

author
igboanugo.kanayo (author)2015-03-10

sir, connecting power cable with Ethernet cable on the same trunk, will there be interference?

author
eLab (author)igboanugo.kanayo2015-05-30

A well executed adapter usually shows no interference.

author
davidjohnson87 (author)2014-04-06

Very!! informative article on Ethernet Adapter but can you suggests me one of best adapter which i could use for my computer, I have already visited some of the online store to like sfcable.com, amazon etc... but still confuse!! Do different adapter support different net speed or all are the same ??, please help me!!!!